A&P Exam 1 Study Guide; Chap 1-9

Created by ashleyyoungcourt 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Organism
Organ System
Organ
Tissue
Cell
Chemical

. Which of the following is arranged in correct order from the most COMPLEX to the SIMPLEST

Homeostasis

The maintenance of a constant internal environment in an organism is termed

Anatomical Position

A person facing forward with hands at the sides and palms facing forward is in the

Anterior

An anatomical term that means the same as ventral

Medial

The heart is ________ to the lungs

Distal

The wrist is ________ to the elbow

Caudal

The chin is ________ to the nose

Pedi-

Which of the following terms refers to the foot

Sagittal

Which plane divides the body into right and left parts

Heart; Lungs;

The thoracic cavity contains the

Heart

A midsagittal section would pass through the

Negative

If a response decreases a disturbance, the system is classified as a ________ feedback system

Positive

If a response increases a disturbance, the system is classified as a ________ feedback system

Structure; Function;

Anatomy is to ________ as physiology is to ________

Effector

A cell or organ that responds to commands of the control center in negative feedback is termed a(n)

RUQ; LUQ; RLQ; LLQ;

The quadrants of the abdominopelvic region include all of the following

Supine

A person is lying on the bed gazing at the ceiling. She is in the ________ position

Right Lung

The right pleural cavity contains the

a location in response to another location

Terms of anatomical direction are used to describe

Thoracic & Abdominopelvic

The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the

Epigastric Region of the RUQ

The liver is primarily located in the ________ quadrant

Towards the foot

While standing erect, the direction of caudal is

Cytology

The analysis of the internal structure of individual cells is called

Skeletal

Which organ system provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage, and blood formation

Cardiovascular

Which organ system transports nutrients, metabolic wastes, gases, and defense cells

Respiratory

Which organ system removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream

Hypothalamus

An example of a receptor in a negative feedback loop controlling body temperature would be

Protons

The "atomic number" of an atom is determined by the number of ________ it has

Protons & Neutrons

The mass number represents the number of

2

The innermost electron shell in an atom holds up to ________ electrons

Isotopes

The "atomic weight" of an atom reflects the average number of

Cations

Ions with a + charge are called

Hydrogen

The weakest bond between two atoms is the ________ bond

There is a transfer of electrons

Ionic bonds are formed when

Polarcovalent Bond

If a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, a(n) ________ occurs

Exothermic

Chemical reactions that yield energy, such as heat, are said to be

They are catalysts
Lower activation energy

All of the following are true concerning enzymes

Activation

Substrate molecules bind to enzymes at the ________ sites

High heat index
Lubricate
Reactivity
Solubility

Which of the following statements about water is not correct

Neutral

A solution containing equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is

Lower than 7

Which of the following substances would be most acidic

Base; Alkaline; or Caustic

If a substance has a pH that is greater than 7, it is

Carbonic Acid or Bicarbonate

An important buffer in body fluids is

Glucose

The most important metabolic fuel molecule in the body is

Unsaturated

A fatty acid that contains two or more double covalent bonds is said to be

Triglycerides

Most of the fat found in the human body is in the form of

Amino Acid

You would expect a peptide bond to link

R Group

Each amino acid differs from another in the

Secondary

The alpha-helix and pleated sheet are examples of ________ protein structure

Nucleic Acids

Molecules that store and process genetic information are the

Guanine

According to the rules of complementary base pairing in nucleic acids, cytosine would pair with the base

ATP

The most abundant high-energy compound in cells is

Water molecules

Hydrophilic molecules readily associate with

18

If an isotope of oxygen has 8 protons, 10 neutrons, and 8 electrons, its mass number is

Hydrogen

Which element commonly has only a proton as its nucleus

Loose water

In dehydration reactions, compounds

Protons & Neutrons

The mass of an atom is largely determined by the number of ________ it has

7.35-7.45 (Blood is 7.4)

Which pH is closest to normal body pH

Specifity

The term ________ means each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction

Calcium

By weight, which element is the most plentiful in the human body

Cytosol

The watery component of the cytoplasm is called

Phospholipids
Steroids
Protein
Carbohydrates

The plasma membrane is composed of

Anchor
Identify
Enzymes
Receptor
Carrier
Channels

Which of the following is a function of membrane proteins

Micro filaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules

Components of the cytoskeleton may include all of the following, except

Mitochondria

Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes

Nuclus

The control center for cellular operations is the

RNA

The triplet codes needed to specify a specific polypeptide chain are found in the

Translation

The process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called

Transcription

The process of forming mRNA is called

Diffusion

The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of

Pores

Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through

Active Transport

A process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called

Endocytosis

The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called

Charges

The potential difference across the cell membrane is due to the separation of

Interphase

The stage in a cell's life cycle in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called

S Phase

A cell duplicates its chromosomes during the ________ phase

Anaphase

During mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during

Telophase

. During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis occurs

Apoptosis

The genetically programmed death of cells is called

Enzymes

Many proteins in the cytosol are ________ that accelerate metabolic reactions

Endocytosis

Involves relatively large volumes of extracellular material to be packaged in vesicles at the cell surface and be imported into the cell

The energy requirements are higher

Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while others have relatively few or none. This suggests that

Genes

The functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are

Hypertonic (Crenation);
Hypotonic (Hemolysis);

Red blood cell shrinkage is to ________ as cell bursting is to ________

Endocytosis
Exocytosis

Two types of vesicular transport include

Phagocytosis

A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates

Apical

The tissue that always has a "top" and a "bottom" is

Squamous

type of epithelium found where absorption or secretion takes place is ________ epithelium

Endocrine

Glands that secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid are

Apocrine

Which of the following is a type of secretion in which some cytoplasm is lost with the product

Adipocytes

Cells that store fat are called

collagen

The dominant fiber type in dense connective tissue is

Bone

Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to

Smooth

The muscle tissue that shows no striations is ________ muscle

Neural (Nervous)

Tissue that is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses is ________ tissue

Simple Tubular

A gland formed by cells arranged in a blind pocket with a single unbranched duct would be called

Macrophasions

Cells that engulf bacteria or cell debris within loose connective tissue are

has a very small ground substance

Unlike cartilage, bone

Gap

The junction type that lets neighboring cells exchange small molecules is the

Secretory Vessicles;
Ductless Glands;
Ducts;

Endocrine glands empty their products into ________ and are referred to as ________ glands, while exocrine gland secretions empty into ________ or onto surfaces

Connective Tissue Proper
Loose Connective Tissue
Fluid Connective Tissue

The three types of connective tissue include

Adults; Babys;

White fat is found in____, while brown fat is found in____.

Hyaline (Fibrocartilage)

Which type of connective tissue is found between the ribs and the sternum, or supporting the trachea

Hair
Errector Pilli Muscles
Seat Glands
Nails
Sebaceous Glands

Accessory structures of the skin include all of the following

Stratum Germinativum

The layer of dividing cells at the base of the epidermis is the

stratum corneum

The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the

Melanin

An albino individual lacks the ability to produce

Subcutaneous

The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the _______ layer

Sweat Glands

Sensible perspiration is produced by ________ glands

Enzymes

Merocrine sweat contains ________ to protect against bacteria

Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)

An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is

You get goose bumps

When the arrector pili muscles contract

*sensible perspiration
*Cool surface of the ksin to reduce body temperature
*Excrete water and electrolytes
*Provide protection for enviornmental hazards

Merocrine sweat glands

4;
5;

Thin skin contains ________ layer(s) of keratinocytes, and thick skin contains ________ layers

Melanoma;
Basal Cell Carcinoma;

Types of skin cancers include

Heals easier;
Closes completely;

A surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavage

Merocrine;
Sebaceous;
Apocrine;

________ sweat glands are widely distributed across the body surface, ________ glands are located wherever
hair follicles exist, and ________ sweat glands are found only in a few areas

Lack of Oxygen (blue)

Cyanosis signifies that a patient

Producing a yellowish-tenge. (too much Biliruben)

Jaundice is indicated by

*Stratified Squamous Epithelium
*Avascular
*Dominated by Keratinocytes
*Provides protection & keeps microrganisms out

Characteristics of the epidermis include

Flat

A rib is an example of a ________ bone

Diaphysis

The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the ________

Osteoblasts

Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called

The bone matrix is contained. Calcium and phosphate concentrations in the body fluid are regulated.

Through the action of osteoclasts

Diaphysis

The shaft of a long bone is called the

Epiphyseal Plate

What structure allows a bone to grow in length

Mesenchymal Cells--Osteoblasts. Bone expands
Blood vessels form
bone assumes structure of spongy bone

Major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification in order is

1. Cartilage enlarges. chondrocyres increase. matrix isreduced.
2. blood vessels grow
3.Fibroblasts migrate with the blood vessels. produce spongy bone.
4.remodeling occurs. shaft of the bone becomes thicker.
5. capillaries and osteoblasts migrate into the epiphysies.
6. epiphysies are filled with spongy bone.

Important steps in the process of endochondral ossification in order is

Calcium

The most abundant mineral in the human body is

Decrease the rate of calcium excretion

The hormone calcitonin functions to

absorption of calcium in the bones

Vitamin D is necessary for

Sesamoid

Bones that develop within tendons are called ________ bones

Foramen

A hole through a bone is termed a

Fossa

A deep hollow on a bone is termed a

Osteons

The structural units of mature compact bone are called

Osteocytes

The most abundant cell type in bone is

Spongy (Alvular)

________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles

Bones grow wider

During appositional growth

they become epiphyseal lines

When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone

parietal

The calvaria (or skullcap) is formed by the ________ bones

7 Orbital Complex bones:
Frontal Bone
Sphenoid
Zygomatic Bone
Ethmoid
Lacrimal Bone
Palatine Bone
Maxilla

Each of the following bones is a component of the orbital complex, except the ________ bone

Temporal
Zygomatic

The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of processes from which two bones

supports the larynx and is the attachment site for the muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and tongue

The hyoid bone

Sphenoid

A skull bone that could be described as looking like a bat with wings extended is the

Frontal Bone
Ethmoid
Nasal Bone
Palatine Bone
Maxilla
Sphenoid

The nasal complex consists of all of the following bones

Moisten and warm the air

The nasal conchae

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set