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periodic law

Physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

cation

a positive ion

electronegativity

a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons

lanthanides

14 elements with atomic numbers from 58 to 71

actinides

14 elements with atomic numbers from 90 to 103

anion

a negative ion

alkali metals

elements of Group 1 of the periodic table

main group elements

elements in the s and p blocks

halogens

elements of Group 17

periodic table

An arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column.

alkaline-earth metals

elements of Group 2 of the periodic table

valence electrons

electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds

transition elements

elements that are metals with typical metallic properties in the d block of the periodic table

ion

an atom or group of bonded atoms that have a positive or negative charge

atomic radius

one half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms tht are bonded together

ionization

any process that results in the formation of an ion

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