EXTRACELLULAR diffusible toxins. (Secreted by bacteria) It is a PROTEIN.
CELL-ASSOCIATED toxins (structural components of bacteria) only in G- rods and cocci. It is a lipopolysaccharide (SUGAR)
Types of exotoxins (G+)
Diptheriae, Tetanus, Botulism, C. diff, C. perfringens, Anthrax, Staph aureus, and Strep pyogenes.
Types of exotoxins (G-)
E. coli, V. cholerae, Bordetella pertussis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Types of endotoxins
Outter membrane of G- bacteria only. Toxin releases during formation or lysis of bacterial cell. The worst are E. coli 0157:H7, Yersinia pestis, Neisseria meningitidis, and H. influenzae B, Salmonella.
Three separate metabolic pathways; Marcrophages, complement system, and Factor Xll of the blood coagulation system.
Found in the guts of lg. bowel usually normal flora. It's a G- motile rod and is lac+. Causes UTI, Meningitis, Pneumonia, travelers diarrhea, HUS, and neonatal sepsis/meningitis.
Found in GI tract of many animals, never normal in humans, G- eneric bacilli that produce H2S and are lac-. Causes fever, acute inflammation of the mucus membranes, G- septicemia. Incubation 8-48hrs.
Strictly human host, 3% of infected become carriers, shedding occurs for up to 1 yr., middle aged women 5X more likely to become carriers. Causes intital symp. in 7-14 days, severe headache, high fever, septicemia, chills, shaking, bone pain, aches and pains, constipation. 2nd week: rose spots on abdomen, enlarged liver, renal damage, pulm abscesses, intestinal perforation and hemorrhage. Can only get once! (has capsule)
Four species exist, human host only, passes by contact from the 5 F's (food, fingers, flies, feces, fomites). Low infective dose. Self limiting in 2-5 days. For S. dysenteriae the toxin produced (neurotoxin) causes severe diarrhea, convulsions, coma and death.
Shellfish,crabs and fish are primary sources of infection. Found in food and water contamination. It's a G- rod (non-encapsulated) slightly curved and has darting motility. Produces cholera toxin. Incubation hrs. to days. Causes RICE WATER diarrhea.
"Shellfish and seafood poisoning" less severe rice water diarrhea, less severe and uncomplicated. Self limiting.
Fulminant septicemia caused by skin abrasions, cuts, or punctures in seawater. Most cases from undercooked seafood and usually oysters. Can cause death in <24hrs.
Enterotoxic E. coli, symptoms include watery diarrhea=Travelers diarrhea. They produce a "cholera like toxin" CLT. It is a G- enteric rod.
Enteroinvasive E. coli, causes bacterial dysentery. Has a cell invasion gene on it's plasmid. It's a G- enteric rod.
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli 0157-H7, causes hemolytic uremic syndrome. Has an exotoxin like Shigella's that causes frank blood and HUS, causing kidney failure and fever.
Transmitted in cold ground water, lunch meats, sausages and normal flora of puppies. It causes fever, severe abd pain, rebound sensitivity, headache, pain and diarrhea, and results in liver abscesses and polyarthritis in some pt's.
Transmitted from carcasses by fecal/oral route. Poultry is most common source. Infects meat, milk and water. Symptoms show in 1-7 days and incl. watery or mildly bloody diarrhea, septic abortion.
Causes ulcers, in 1-2 weeks with severe stomach pain, nausea and fever. It produces ammonia from urea, neutralizes stomach acid, and is URASE+. Urase breath test will tell if infected.
Oxidase+, found in dirt and water. They are sometimes found in the bowel and are class. as an "out". Opportunistic pathogen. Responsible for many nosocomial infections, produces a powerful exotoxin. Is an obligate aerobe.
Transmitted from animals or infec. humans. Symptoms of hemorrhage, vascular collapse, and necrosis of the tissues. Swollen lymp nodes (bubonic), respiratory, or septicemic. DIC, TTP also.
Normal flora of cats, and dogs. G- short, fat coccobacilli. Non-motile and encapsulated. Bites become rapidly inflamed, red, & hot. Fever develops and septicemia occurs quickly.
"rabbit fever" causes tularemia. Lives in animals, transmitted by ticks, fleas or bites of infected animals, eating or touching them then your open skin or mucosa, and contaminated water. Ulcer develops at bite site, DIC, TTP, necrosis and abscesses of the nodes may occur.
G- spirochete microaerobe, gram stain doesn't work. Secreted by the saliva of Ixodes ticks. Called Lyme disease, stage 1- includes a bulls-eye rash (red&hot but no pain), stage 2-Neurological symptoms, stage 3- arthritis of major joints and fatigue.
Hemophilus influenzae B
Transmitted from normal flora in secretions, aerosols and hands and becomes infectious when host's immunity is weak. Capsulated, and only one strain is particularly dangerous causing 90% of invasive infections. Causes pathogenesis, meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis.
Small G- non-motile rod, causes coughing fits leading to paroxysmal coughing. The hypoxia can lead to death. Transmitted by aerosols of infected humans cough/sneeze.
Transmitted in streams, rivers, public water, cooling towers, AC unit's evap puddles, potting soils, misters. G- aerobic bacteria, can be found in urine antigen test. Secrete exotoxins (cytotoxin). Infection more common in old men who drink and smoke and live in ummm...Philly ;)
Symptoms include high fever, chills, malaise, non productive cough, hypoxia, diarrhea, and delirium.
Causes blindness from exposure at birth, urethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, pharyngitis, vulvovaginitis. There are no exotoxins produced. 2-8 days after exposure symptoms appear. Fever and drainage are usual, (septic arthritis, endocarditis and meningitis are later after dissemination).
Obligate intracellular parasite of human. Symptoms resemble a UTI in women while men have pus discharge. Leading cause of PID. Pericarditis and perihepatitis are common sites of disseminated disease.
Syphilis, bacteria penetrates mucosal tissue causing infection of the lymph nodes. Primary occurs in usually about 3 weeks as an ulcer men can see, women have no idea. Secondary occurs as a fever, headache and rash (septicemia). Latent period. Tertiary causes systemic disease of organs, and neurosyphilis.