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What are the 2 principal cell populations that make up nervous tissue?

1. Neurons
2. Neuroglia [glial cells]

The neuroglia in the central nervous system includes what 4 types of cells?

1. astrocytes
2. oligodendrocytes
3. microglia
4. ependymal

The neuroglia in the peripheral nervous system include these 2 important types of cells?

1. Schwann cells
2. satellite cells

What is the major functional difference between neuroglia and neurons?

Neurons are highly specialized to conduct and transmit nerve impulses from one part of the body to another; the basic functional units of nervous tissue

Neuroglia brace and protect neurons, but are not capable of generating and transmitting nerve impulses.


collections of neuron cell bodies outside the CNS; make up the gray matter of the nervous system

Neuron fibers running through the CNS form tracts of ___?___; in PNS they form ___?___.

1. white matter
2. peripheral nerves

What sub-type of neuroglial cells would you find lining the central canal?

ependymal cells

What is the function of ependymal cells

To produce Cereral Spinal fluid

What is the structure of dendrites

Thick, highly branched tapered extension of cell cytoplasm of the cell body

What is the function of dendrites

To conduct impulses toward the cell body an produce graded potentials

What is the function of axons

To conduct impulses away from the body

What is the structure of Nissel bodies

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

What is the function of Nissel bodies

ordely arrangement for protein synthesis, for growth of neurons and regeneration of nerve fibers

What is the structure of a synapse

a junction with neurons or effector cells

What is the function of an synapse

mediates info transfer from one neuron to the next or from one neuron to an effector cell

Myelin is made of what substance

Whitish fatty protein lipoid

what are three functons of the myelin sheath

1. protects and electrically insulates fibers
2. increases the speed of transmission of nerve impulses
3. wraps/surrounds larger PNS axons

What is the neurilemma

The plasma membrane surrounding a schwann cell of myelinated nerve fier and separating layers of myelin

What is the function of the neurilemma

To surrond a schwann cell of a myelinated fier and does all the metabolic process for the schwann cell

What are the nodes of ranvier

gaps between schwann cells along the myelinated axon

What are the functions of Nodes of Ranvier

1. To increase the speed of conduction
2. Provides areas/gaps where collaterals can emerge

what anatomical characteristic determine whether a particular neuron is classified unipolar, bipolar or multipolar?

Number of processes extending from their cell body

what is the structure of an unipolar neuron?

Single short process that emerges from the cell body

What is the function of an unipolar neuron?

the most distal portion of perperal portion act as receptve endings; the rest act as axon along with central process and a sensory neuron

what is an example of an unipolar neuron?

Neurons that conduct impulses toward the CNS

What is the structure of a bipolar neuron

One dendrite and one axon

what is the funtion of a bipolar neuron

sensory neuron

What is an example of a bipolar neuron

neurons in the retina of the eye, special sense organs-eyes, nose, ears

What is the structure of a multipolar neuron

several dendrites and one axon

What is the function of a multipolar neuron

To carry impulses away from the CNS (motor)

what is the function of sensory or afferent neuron

to carry impulses from sensory receptors in the internal organs(viscera), the skin, skeletal muscles, joints or special sensory organs; unipolar

what is the function of motor or efferent neuron

to carry impulses from the CNS to the viscera and/or body muscles and glands; multipolar

What is the function of association or interneurons

situated between and contriute to pathways that connect sensory and motor nerons; multipolar

How does a neuron differ from a nerve/tract

Neurons are structural units of nerves. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers found in the PNS and myelinated by schwann cells. A track is found in the CNS and it myelinated by oligodendrocytes

What is the afferent/sensory nerve

carry impulses only to the central nervous system

What is efferent/motor nerve

carry impulses only away from th CNS

What is an mixed nerve

A nerve that contains both sensory and motor fibers and transmits impulses to and from the CNS

What is endoneurium

Loose connective tissue sheath that surrounds individual nerve fibers (axons)

What is perineurium

the connective tissue that surronds bundles of nerve fibers and binds up a fasicle (bundle) of fibers

What are fascicles

bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue called the perineurium (neurons)

What is epineurium

Tough fibrous connective tissue sheath that surrounds the fascicles and blood vessels to form a nerve; outermost layer

The neurons in the dorsal root ganglion are (structurally)


The neurns in the dorsal root ganglion are (functionally)


What is the function of the connective tissue associated with a nerve

Divides the fibers, fasicles, and covers the entire nerve

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