What are the Functions of Lipids?
-protection and insulation
-component of cell membrane
What are the types of Lipid Molecules?
triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols
What are the types of Fatty Acids
saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated
Saturated fat..is a type of? does? found in? bonds?
-coconut oil, butter, cream, cheese
-tend to stay solid
-no double bonds
Monounsaturated fat..found in? What is it in room temperature? bonds?
-olive oil, canola oil, peanut
-liquid in room temp.
-1 double bond
Polyunsaturated fat..found in? What is it in room temp? Bonds?
-vegetable oils, fish oils, canola, cottonseed
-tend to stay liquid in room temperature
-2 or more double bonds
How long is a short chain fatty acid?
fewer than 6 carbons
How long is a medium chain fatty acid?
How long is a long chain fatty acid?
14 or more carbons
Partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acids..what are they? why are they? function? found in?
-Hydrogen under pressure
-more solid, less prone to become oxidized
-margarine, crackers, cookies
What are the types of essential fatty acids?
Linoleic & Alpha-linolenic
Phospholipids..function? made up of?
-helps with fat absorption
-part of the cell membrane
-made up of 1 glycerol 2 fatty acids
-contains hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends
Sterols..what are they? most common sterol?
-rings of carbon
-produced by animals
-raises LDL-C cholesterol
Lipid Digestion..mouth? stomach hormones? short intestine hormones?
-stomach: gastric lipase..not much
-short intestine: cholycystekonin stimulates gall bladder to relase bile and pancreatic lipase
-lipases break the triglyceride into monoacylglyceride and two free fatty acids
What are micelles?
emulsified fat which transports lipid digested product into enterocytes
In the enterocyte, what happens to: short and medium chain fatty acids? Long chain fatty acids?
short and medium:enter circulation
long: reassembled int triglyceride by being combined with cholesterol, phospholipids and small protein
What happens when cholesterol, protein and phospholipids combine?
a lipoprotein called a chylomicron is made which enters the lymph then the bloodstream
What are lipoproteins?
transport lipids & cholesterol in the blood
What is the order in which ATP is made?
Glycolysis, Formation of acetyl-CoA, Citric acid cycle, Electron Transport Chain
What are involved during Glycolysis?
glucose to pyruvate
What are involved during formation of acetyl-coA?
pyruvate to Acetyl CoA + NADH + H + CO2
What are involved during Citric Acid Cycle?
TCA cycle produces CO2, GTP, NADH, FADH
What are involved during ETC?
oxidized NAD & FAD, ATP, Water
at the end of the cycle 36-38 ATP are made
Type 1 Diabetes
autoimmune disease affecting beta cells of pancreas
Type 2 Diabetes
resistance to insulin
low blood sugar
What is a Glycemic Index?
a food's potential to raise blood glucose and insulin levels