chapter 10 general pharmacology

36 terms by gphat 

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absorption

the process by which medications travel through body tissues until they reach the bloodstream

action

the therapeutic effect of a medication on the body

activated charcoal

an oral medication that binds and adsorbs ingested toxins in the gastrointestinal tract for treatment of some poisonings and medication overdoses. charcoal is ground into a very fine powder that provides the greatest possible surface area for binding medications that have been taken by mouth; it is carried on the EMS unit

adsorption

the process of binding or sticking to a surface

aspirin

acetylsalicyclic acid, or ASA. a medication that is an antipyretic (reduces fever), analgesic (reduces pain), anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation), and potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation (clumping)

contraindications

conditions that make a particular medication or treatment inappropriate, for example, a condition in which a medication should not be given because it would not help or may actually harm a patient

dose

the amount of medication given on the basis of the patient's size and shape

epinephrine

a medication that increases heart rate and blood pressure but also eases breathing problems by decreasing muscle tone of the bronchiole tree; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication

gel

a semi-liquid substance that is administered orally in capsule form or through plastic tubes

generic name

the original chemical name of a medication (in contrast with one of its "trade names"); the name is not capitalized

hypoglycemia

an abnormally low blood glucose level

indications

the therapeutic uses for a specific medication

inhalation

breathing into the lungs; a medication delivery route

intramuscular (IM) injection

an injection into a muscle; a medication delivery route

intraosseous (IO)

into the bone; a medication delivery route

intravenous (IV) injection

an injection directly into a vein; a medication delivery route

metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

a miniature spray canister through which droplets or particles of medication may be inhaled

nitroglycerin

a medication that increases cardiac perfusion by causing arteries to dilate; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication

oral

by mouth; a medication delivery route

oral glucose

a simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream; it is carried on the EMS unit

over-the-counter (OTC) medications

medications that may be purchased directly by a patient without a prescription

oxygen

a gas that all cells need for metabolism; the heart and brain, especially, cannot function without oxygen

per os (PO)

through the mouth; a medication delivery route; same as oral

per rectum (PR)

through the rectum; a medication delivery route

pharmacology

the study of properties and effects of medications

polypharmacy

the use of multiple medications on a regular basis

prescription medications

medications that are distributed to patients only by pharmacists according to a physician's order

side effects

any effects of a medication other than the desired ones

solution

a liquid mixture that cannot be separated by filtering or allowing the mixture to stand

subcutaneous (SC) injection

injection into the tissue between the skin and muscle; a medication delivery route

sublingual (SL)

under the tongue; a medication delivery route

suspension

a mixture of ground particles that are distributed evenly throughout a liquid but do not dissolve

topical medications

lotions, creams, and ointments that are applied to the surface of the skin and affect only that area; a medication delivery route

trade name

the brand name that a manufacturer gives a medication; the name is capitalized

transcutaneous

through the skin; a medication delivery route

transdermal medications

medications that are designed to be absorbed through the skin (transcutaneously)

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