Module 15A: Chemical Digestion and Absorption

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conversion poysaccharides to disaccharides and finally monosaccharides

Describe the chemical digestion of carbohydrates:

salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, brush border enzymes lactase

What enzymes are involve in carbohydrate digestion?

mouth, stomach, small intestine

Where does digestion of carbohydrates take place

gastric acid, pepsin, pancreatic juice (trypsin and chymotrypsin), BBE peptidase

What enzymes are involved in the digestion of proteins

gastric acid denatures protein, pepsin protein to peptides and pancreatic juice peptides to amino acids

Function of gastric acid, pepsin, pancreatic juice

stomach, small intestine

Where does digestion of proteins take place

lipids to monoglycerides and fatty acids

Describe chemical digestion of lipids

bile and pancreatic lipase

What enzymes are involved in the digestion of lipids

bile - emulsifies fate; pancreatic lipase breaksdown triglycerides to monoglycerides and fatty acids

Function of bile, pancreatic lipase

mouth, stomach, small intestine (major)

Where does digestion of lipids take place?

pentoses, phosphates, nitrogenous bases

What forms of nucleic acid digestion are absorbed

pancreatic nucleases, brush border enzyme phosphatase

What enzymes are involved in the digestion of nucleic acids

monosaccharides and amino acids are transported across epithelial cells of villi from lumen either through active transport or cotransport with Na+. monosaccharides enter blood capillary of villus by facilitated diffusion, a.a. by diffusion then transported to the liver either to be removed by hepatocytes or will enter general circulation

Describe the route of monosaccharides and amino acids from the lumen of the intestine to the general circulation

bile salts form micelles, where fatty acids and monoglycerides dissolve in the core and the micelles carry fatty acids and monoglycerides to apical surface of epithelial cells of villi for absorption, bile salts are then release absorbed by the ileum and recycled to the liver thru the hepatic portal system; formation of chylomicrons occurs when fatty acids and glycerols in epithelial cells of villus combine to form triglycerides and are coated with protein

Describe the absorption of lipids to include role of bile salts and micelles

fatty acids and glycerols in epithelial cells of villus combine to form triglycerides and are coated with protein

Formation of chylomicrons

chylomicrons leave epithelial cells via exocytosis enter lymphatic lacteals of villi, go to lymphatic vessels, then the thoracic duct, left subclavian vein and finally to general circulation where they are quickly removed by the liver and adipose cell

Route of chylomicrons to general Circulation

vitamin K and B produced by bacterial flora

Name two vitamins produced and absorbed in the large intestine

vitamin B12 combines with intrinsic factor (produced by the parietal cells of the stomach) complex is absorbed via receptor mediated endocytosis in the ileum of the small intestine

Describe the absorption of vitamine B12

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