formula for alkane
angle strain (Baeyer strain)
the strain associated with compressing bond angles to smaller (or larger) angles
a conformation with a 180 degree dihedral angle between the largest groups. usually the lowest-energy conformation.
bridged bicyclic compound
a compound containing two rings joined at nonadjacent carbons.
the carbons bridging two separate rings.
switching from one chair conformation to the next, with all the axial and equatorial positions reversed. the boat conformation is an intermediate for this interconversion.
structures that are related by rotations about single bonds. in most cases, conformations interconvert at room temperature, and so they are not true isomers
conformations of cyclohexanes:
1. chair-most stable
2. boat: less stable
3. twist boat- more stable version of twist boat (twist reduces torsional strain and steric strain)
two hydrogens in the boat conformation point upward like flagpoles.
1,3 diaxial interaction
the strong steric strain between two axial groups on cyclohexane carbons with one carbon between them.
degree of alkyl substitution
primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary
the angle between two specified groups in a newman projection.
a conformation with a 60 degree dihedral angle between the largest groups
the reaction of alkanes with halogens, in the presence of heat or light, to give products with halogen atoms substituted for hydrogen atoms.
heat of combustion
the heat given off when a mole of a compound is burned in a bomb calorimeter.
two compounds that differ only by one or more -CH2 groups (eg ethane vs. propane)
a thin, volatile hydrocarbon with a boiling range between that of diesel fuel and that of gasoline.
an icelike substance consisting of individual methane molecules trapped inside cages of water molecules
carbon bonded to two other things and one hydrogen
angle strain (baeyer strain): bond angle compression or expansion
torsional strain: the strain associated with eclipsing of bonds in the ring.
any conformation that is not precisely staggered or eclipsed.
bicyclic compounds in which the two rings share only one carbon atom.
the energy required to twist a bond into a specific conformation.