Fundamentals of Nursing

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Therapeutic communication skills Chapter 44 Admission, transfer, and discharge Chapter 45 Vital signs Chapter 46 Data Collection in Client care Chapter 47 Body Mechanics and Positioning Chapter 48 Beds and bed making chapter 49 Personal Hygiene and Skin care chapter 50 Elimination Chapter 51 Bandages and Binders Chapter 53 Heat and cold applications Chapter 54 Client comfort and pain managment Chapter 55 Pre-Op and Post-OP Care chapter 56

alias

an assigned name under which certain clients are admitted to (and records kept in) a healthcare facility in order to maintain anonymity.

aphasia

an abnormal neurologic condition in which a person is unable to express oneself through speech or writing.

assertiveness

confidence without aggression or passivity, an important skill for a nurse to possess in interpersonal communication.

body language

impressions one conveys through body movements and posture, eye contact, and other non-verbal means.

closed-ended question

questions that can usually be answered by one word, such as "yes" or "no;" also called close-ended questions.

communication

giving, receiving, and interpreting information (maybe verbal or nonverbal).

eye contact

looking another person in the eye, as in "making eye contact."

interview

a goal-directed conversation in which one person seeks information from the other.

nonverbal communication

conveying information or messages without speaking or writing. Components include items such as therapeutic touch, gestures, body language, facial expression, and eye contact.

open-ended question

questions used in therapeutic communication and interviews that promote in-depth answers and encourage clients to talk about themselves and their concerns.

personal space

an invisible, mutually understood area or zone around a per-son that is considered inappropriate for strangers to violate (varies between cultures). If a person invades another's personal space (comes too close), it may cause discomfort. Much nursing care must occur within the client's personal space.

proxemics

the use of space in relationship to communication.

therapeutic communication

communication (usually verbal) with a client that is helpful and beneficial; creating a healing, curative, and safe milieu by using communication.

verbal communication

giving information, news, or messages by speaking or writing.

acuity

clearness; or a disorder's level of severity; minimum level or need for healthcare services that must be met for a client to be admitted to an acute care facility.

dehumanization

to make a person/client feel like an object, to remove one's dignity.

vital signs

measurements of temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure.

apical pulse

pulse normally heard at the heart's apex, which usually gives the most accurate assessment of pulse rate.

apical-radial pulse

reading done by measuring both the apical and radial pulses simultaneously, used when it is suspected that the heart is not effectively pumping blood.

apnea

cessation of breathing

auscultation

externally listening to sounds from within the body to determine abnormal conditions, as auscultation of blood pressure with a stethoscope

axillary

the underarms

bradycardia

abnormally slow heart; slow pulse

bradypnea

condition in which breaths are abnormally slow and fall below ten per minute.

carotid pulse

pulse felt on either side of the neck, over the carotid artery.

Celsius

temperature scale in which water boils at 100 degrees and freezes at zero (formerly centigrade). "Normal" oral body temperature is 37 degrees Celsius. Celsius scale most often used in health care facilities.

Normal range oral temperature

35.5-37.5 C (95.5-99.5 F)

Normal range respriatory rates adult Men

12-18

Normal range respriatory rates adult

16-20

Normal blood pressure parameters for adults

120/80

Normal pulse rate for adults

60-80 BPM ( beats per minute)

base of support

balance or stability provided by the feet and their positioning.

body mechanics

use of safe and efficient methods of moving and lifting.

center of gravity

the center of one's weight; half of one's body weight is below and half above, and half to the left and half to the right of the center of gravity. This concept is important in body mechanics.

circumduction

circular movement of a limb or the eye.

client reminder device

piece of equipment, most often a vest or a belt, used to ensure the safety of the client (ie, helping client to remain in a chair without falling); also called a client reminder device.

contracture

abnormal shortening of muscles with resultant deformity.

contralateral

the opposite side.

dangling

positioning of a client so that he or she is sitting on the edge of the bed with legs down and feet supported by a footstool or the floor. This is an exercise in preparation for sitting in a chair and/or walking.

eversion

turning inside out; turning outward

footdrop

contracture deformity that prevents the client from putting the heel on the floor; results from improper positioning or anterior leg muscle paralysis; abnormal plantar flexion of foot.

Fowler's position

examination position in which the client is lying on his or her back with the head elevated.

gait

manner or style of walking

gait belt

sturdy webbed belt used by the nurse to help provide support to the weak or unsteady person.

gravital plane

direction of gravitation pull; an imaginary vertical line through the top of the head, center of gravity, and base of support.

gurney

our-wheeled cart; also called gurney, wheeled stretcher. A litter scale is used to weigh clients who cannot stand.

hemiplegia

paralysis on one side of the body.

inversion

turning inside out; reversing.

isometric

having the same length or dimensions, as isometric exercises(pushing against stable resistance);also called muscle setting.

lateral

side-lying

line of gravity

direction of gravitation pull; an imaginary vertical line through the top of the head, center of gravity, and base of support.

lithotomy

examination position in which the client is lying on his or her back with the feet in stirrups.

litter

same as gurney

logroll turn

method of turning a client that keeps the body in straight alignment, used for clients with injuries to the back and/or spinal cord.

orthopneic position

difficult breathing, relieved by sitting or standing erect; orthopneic position: sitting and leaning forward, to facilitate breathing.

paralysis

motion loss or impairment of sensation in a body part.

paraplegia

paralysis of the legs and sometimes the lower part of the body; a person with this condition is called a paraplegic.

pronation

turning the hand so that the palm faces downward or backward.

prone

positioning a client so that he or she is lying on the stomach

protective device

same as client reminder device

rotation

process of turning about an axis, as rotation of the hand.

Sims' position

examination position in which the client is lying on his or her left side with right knee flexed.

supine

lying on back

transfer belt

sturdy webbed belt used by the nurse to help provide support to the weak or unsteady person.

transfer board

board made of hard plastic used to move patients who are unable to stand from the side of the bed to a chair.

trochanter roll

padding placed onsides of legs and feet of a client in bed, to prevent abnormal outward rotation and related sequela.

bed cradle

a frame used to prevent bedclothes from touching all or part of a person's body.

closed bed

bed used when preparing a unit for a new client—an unoccupied bed

egg crate mattress

a foam pad, shaped like an egg carton, which is used on top of a regular bed mattress to provide comfort and to pre-vent pressure areas.

flotation mattress

mattress or pad filled with a gel-type material which supports the body in a way to pro-vide comfort and avoid creating pressure points, thereby helping to prevent skin breakdown.

footboard

vertical support at the foot of a bed, helps to prevent footdrop.

footdrop

contracture deformity that prevents the client from putting the heel on the
floor; results from improper positioning or anterior leg muscle paralysis; abnormal plantar
flexion of the foot.

mitered (corners)

the type of beveled corners used when making a hospital bed.

occupied bed

bed holding a client that is unable to get up as a result of his or her condition or generalized weakness.

open bed

bed that allows linens to be turned down, making it easier for a person to get into or out of.

postoperative bed

bed prepared for a client who is returning from surgery or another procedure that requires transfer into the bed from a stretcher or wheelchair.

traction

exertion of a pulling force; an apparatus attached to the client to maintain stability of a joint or aligned fracture or to exert a pulling force elsewhere, as in the lower back, to relieve pressure.

trapeze

horizontal bar suspended above and attached to the bed, which is used to pull up to a sitting position or to lift the shoulders and hips off the bed.

unoccupied bed

bed that is empty at the time it is made up.

dental caries

The formation of cavities in the teeth by the action of bacteria; tooth decay.

friable

fagile; easily broken

halitosis

bad breath

nits

lice eggs

pediculosis

infested with lice

perineal care

bathing genitals and surrounding area

pyorrhea

copious discharge of pus

smegma

sebaceous gland secretion that may collect under foreskin of penis in an uncircumcised male.

sordes

foul, dark matter that collects around the teeth and lips in low grade fever

base of support

balance or stability provided by the feet and their positioning

body mechanics

use of safe and efficient methods of moving and lifting

center of gravity

the center of one's weight; half of one's body weight is below and half above, and half to the left and half to the right of the center of gravity. This concept is important in body mechanics.

circumduction

circular movement of a limb or the eye.

client reminder device

piece of equipment, most often a vest or a belt, used to ensure the safety of the client (ie, helping client to remain in a chair without falling); also called a client reminder device.

contracture

abnormal shortening of muscles with resultant deformity.

contralateral

the opposite side

dangling

positioning of a client so that he or she is sitting on the edge of the bed with legs down and feet supported by a footstool or the floor. This is an exercise in preparation for sitting in a chair and/or walking.

eversion

turning inside out; turning outward

footdrop

contracture deformity that prevents the client from putting the heel on the floor; results from improper positioning or anterior leg muscle paralysis; abnormal plantar flexion of foot.

Fowler's position

examination position in which the client is lying on his or her back with the head elevated.

gait

manner or style of walking

gait belt

sturdy webbed belt used by the nurse to help provide support to the weak or unsteady person.

gravital plane

direction of gravitation pull; an imaginary vertical line through the top of the head, center of gravity, and base of support.

gurney

our-wheeled cart; also called gurney, wheeled stretcher. A litter scale is used to weigh clients who cannot stand.

hemiplegia

paralysis on one side of the body.

inversion

turning inside out; reversing.

isometric

having the same length or dimensions, as isometric exercises(pushing against stable resistance);also called muscle setting.

lateral

side-lying

line of gravity

direction of gravitation pull; an imaginary vertical line through the top of the head, center of gravity, and base of support.

lithotomy

examination position in which the client is lying on his or her back with the feet in stirrups.

litter

same as gurney

logroll turn

method of turning a client that keeps the body in straight alignment, used for clients with injuries to the back and/or spinal cord.

orthopneic position

difficult breathing, relieved by sitting or standing erect; orthopneic position: sitting and leaning forward, to facilitate breathing.

paralysis

motion loss or impairment of sensation in a body part.

paraplegia

paralysis of the legs and sometimes the lower part of the body; a person with this condition is called a paraplegic.

pronation

turning the hand so that the palm faces downward or backward.

prone

positioning a client so that he or she is lying on the stomach.

protective device

same as client reminder device

rotation

process of turning about an axis, as rotation of the hand

Sims' position

examination position in which the client is lying on his or her left side with right knee flexed.

supine

lying on back

transfer belt

sturdy webbed belt used by the nurse to help provide support to the weak or unsteady person.

transfer board

board made of hard plastic used to move patients who are unable to stand from the side of the bed to a chair.

trochanter roll

padding placed onsides of legs and feet of a client in bed, to prevent abnormal outward rotation and related sequela.

bed cradle

a frame used to prevent bedclothes from touching all or part of a person's body.

closed bed

bed used when preparing a unit for a new client—an unoccupied bed

egg crate mattress

a foam pad, shaped like an egg carton, which is used on top of a regular bed mattress to provide comfort and to pre-vent pressure areas.

flotation mattress

mattress or pad filled with a gel-type material which supports the body in a way to pro-vide comfort and avoid creating pressure points, thereby helping to prevent skin breakdown.

footboard

vertical support at the foot of a bed, helps to prevent footdrop.

footdrop

contracture deformity that prevents the client from putting the heel on the
floor; results from improper positioning or anterior leg muscle paralysis; abnormal plantar
flexion of the foot.

mitered (corners)

the type of beveled corners used when making a hospital bed.

occupied bed

bed holding a client that is unable to get up as a result of his or her condition or generalized weakness.

open bed

bed that allows linens to be turned down, making it easier for a person to get into or out of.

postoperative bed

bed prepared for a client who is returning from surgery or another procedure that requires transfer into the bed from a stretcher or wheelchair.

traction

exertion of a pulling force; an apparatus attached to the client to maintain stability of a joint or aligned fracture or to exert a pulling force elsewhere, as in the lower back, to relieve pressure.

trapeze

horizontal bar suspended above and attached to the bed, which is used to pull up to a sitting position or to lift the shoulders and hips off the bed.

unoccupied bed

bed that is empty at the time it is made up.

dental caries

The formation of cavities in the teeth by the action of bacteria; tooth decay.

friable

fragile; easily broken

halitosis

bad breath

nits

lice eggs

pediculosis

infested with lice

perineal care

bathing genitals and surrounding area

pyorrhea

copious discharge of pus

smegma

sebaceous gland secretion that may collect under foreskin of penis in an uncircumcised male.

sordes

foul, dark matter that collects around the teeth and lips in low grade fever

abscess

collection of pus in a localized area

accommodation

adjustment, as the accommodation of the lens of the eye.

acuity

clearness; or a disorder's level of severity; minimum level or need for healthcare services that must be met for a client to be admitted to an acute care facility.

acute disease

disease or illness that develops suddenly and runs its course in days or weeks; illnesses that interfere with the continuum for a short period of time.

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