The sense organs' responses to external stimuli and the transmission of these responses to the brain.
The processing,organization, and interpretation of sensory signals; it results in an internal representation of the stimulus.
A process by which sensory receptors produce neural impulses when they recieve physical or chemical stimulation.
Signal Detection Theory
A theory of perception based on the idea that the detection of a faint stimulus requires a judgement-it is not an all-or-none process.
A decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation. (Ex. People Living Near London Airport)
The clear outer covering of the eye. (Focuses incoming light through refraction)
The thin layer surface of the back of the eyeball. Contains the photoreceptors that transduce light into neural signals. (Lens bends light rays farther inward and form image on this part of the eye)
The small opening in the eye, it lets in light waves. (Determines how much light enters the eye through contracting or dilating).
Retinal cells that respond to low levels of illumination and result in black and white perception. (Do not support color vision and resolve fine detail poorly)
Retinal cells that respond to higher levels of illumination and result in color perception. (Less sensitive to low levels of light; Primary for fine detail and color vision.)
The center of the retina, where cones are densely packed.
First cells in the visual pathway to the brain.
Bipolar, Amacrine, and Horizontal Cells
Cells that perform on those impulses a series of sophisticated computations that help the visual system process the incoming information.
The pathway through which signals from sensory stimulation travel to the optic chasm.
Point where the optic nerves for the left and right visual cortex cross.
Primary Visual Cortex
The place to where the visual information received from the synapse of the ganglion cells in the thalamus is sent. (Located in the Occipital Lobe)
The region of visual space to which neurons in the primary visual cortex are sensitive.
A visual process in which adjacent photoreceptors tend to inhibit another.
Subtractive Color Mixing
A way to produce a given spectral pattern in which the mixture occurs within the stimulus itself and is actually a physical, not psychological process.
Additive Color Mixing
A way to produce given spectral pattern in which different wavelengths of light are mixed. The percept is determined by the interaction of these wavelengths with receptors in the eye and is a psychological process.
An optical illusion in which identical stimuli appear different when presented against different backgrounds.
Perception of our limbs in space. (receptors in muscles and tendons, and joints that pinpoint the position in space and the movements of both our body and limbs)
Perception of balence. (receptors in the semicircular canals of the ear containing a liquids that move when the head moves giving us our understanding of balence.)
Pathway specialized for spatial perception determining where an object is and relating it to other objects in a scene. ("Where" pathway)
Pathway appears to be specialized for the perception and recognition of objects. ("What" pathway)
The firing rate of neurons when lines of various orientations of lines are presented.
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
Touch information from the thalamus is projected here. (Located in the Parietal Lobe)
Primary Auditory Cortex
Auditory neurons in the thalamus extend their axons here. (located in the temporal lobe)
The inability to recognize objects.
Principle of Proximity
States that the closer two figures two figures are to each other, the more likely we are to group them and see them as part of the same object.
Principle of Similarity
States that we tend to group figures according to how closely they resemble each other, whether in shape, color, or orientation.
The tendency to interpret interesting lines as continuous rather than as changing direction radical.
Anything that hides a portion of an object or an entire object from view.
Refers to the fact we perceive contours even though they do not exist.
A hierarchical model of pattern recognition in which data are relayed from one processing level to the next, always moving to a higher level of processing.
A hierarchical model of pattern recognition in which information at higher levels of processing can also influence lower, "earlier" levels in the processing hierarchy.
Located in the right hemisphere; specialized for perceiving faces.
Binocular Depth Cues
Cues of depth perception that arise from the fact that people have two eyes.
Monocular Depth Cues
Cues of depth perception that are available to each eye alone. (Occlusion, Relative Size, Familiar Size, Linear Perspective, Texture Gradient, Position Relative To Horizon)
A cue of depth perception that is caused by the distance between a person's eyes, which provides each eye with a slightly different image.
People correctly perceive objects as constant in their shape, size, color, and lightness, despite raw sensory data that could mislead perception.