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The situation of Carly Fiorina and Hewlett-Packard is most similar to the situation of a ____ top management team and ____ CEO succession which does not provide clear cut predictions of either stability or innovation in organizational strategy.
a.
homogenous, internal
b.
heterogeneous, internal
c.
homogeneous, external
d.
heterogeneous, external

C
Heterogeneous top management team- composed of individuals with different functional backgrounds, experience, and education
Internal managerial labor market- firms opportunities for managerial positions and the qualified ees within that firm
External- collection of managerial career opportunities and the qualified people who are external to the organization in which the opportunities exist

The primary responsibility for effective strategic leadership of the organization rests with the
a.
board of directors
b.
top management team
c.
CEO
d.
stakeholders

C

top management team- composed of key individuals who are responsible for selecting and implementing the firm's strategies

The most effective leadership style is ____ leadership.
a.
pragmatic
b.
charismatic
c.
inspirational
d.
transformational

D
transformational- most effective. Develop and communicate a vision for the organization and formulate a strategy to achieve this vision. Motivates followers to exceed the expectations others have of them to continuously enrich their capabilities and to place the interests of the organization above their own

The ability to manage ____ may be the most important skill a strategic leader must have.
a.
human capital
b.
financial resources
c.
responses to competitors' actions
d.
investment strategies

A
a.
human capital- refers to the knowledge and skills of a firm's entire workforce

The board of directors for TundraPro, Inc., is searching for a new CEO. The firm is in need of new direction after suffering several years of declining performance and increasingly demoralized management and employees. The board has decided it needs a CEO who can be a transforma-tional leader. To this specific end, the board needs to identify applicants who have
a.
high levels of honesty, trustworthiness, and integrity.
b.
high emotional intelligence.
c.
excellent analytical skills.
d.
low tolerance for ambiguity.

B
b.
high emotional intelligence- understand themselves well, have strong motivation, are empathetic with others, and have effective interpersonal skills. Can promote and nurture innovation in their firms

Dennis Koslowski, the disgraced former CEO of Tyco, seems to have felt there was no boundary between his own interests and the company's interest. He eliminated people who disagreed with him. He underestimated the obstacles confronting the company. His attitude was one of arrogance and extreme self-confidence. This attitude can be summed up as
a.
managerial hubris.
b.
executive isolation.
c.
denial of reality.
d.
CEO sociopathy.

A
a.
managerial hubris.- The characteristic of excessive confidence or arrogance, which leads a person to believe that he or she may do no wrong. The overwhelming pride caused by hubris is often considered a flaw in character. While these hubris feelings are often justified, they often cause irrational and harmful behavior. Chief executive officers and very successful businessmen who are overcome with hubris tend to be difficult to work with in team settings. Hubris may be developed after a person encounters a period of success. Corporate executives and traders overcome by hubris may become a liability for their firms. A manager might start making business decisions without fully thinking through the consequences, or a trader may begin taking on excessive risk. In many cases, people overcome by hubris will bring about their own downfall.

Which of the following is NOT a factor that determines the amount of a manager's decision discretion?
a.
characteristics of the manager
b.
characteristics of the organization
c.
cohesiveness of the board of directors
d.
the external environmental

C
Amount of discretion factors:
1- external environmental sources such as the industry structure, rate of market growth in the firms primary industry and the degree to which products can be differentiated
2- characteristics of the organization, including its size, age, resources, and culture
3- characteristics of the manager, including commitment to the firm and its strategic outcomes, tolerance for ambiguity, skills in working with different people, and aspiration levels

All of the following are external environmental sources that affect managerial discretion EXCEPT
a.
industry structure.
b.
corporate culture.
c.
market growth rate.
d.
potential for product differentiation.

B
External environment includes:
Industry structure
Rate of market growth
# and type of competitors
Nature and degree of political/legal constraints
Degree to which products can be differentiated

A characteristic of the manager that may affect managerial discretion is his/her
a.
amount of industry experience.
b.
level of education.
c.
tolerance for ambiguity.
d.
length of tenure.

C
Characteristics of the manager include:
Tolerance for ambiguity
Commitment to the firm and its desired strategic outcomes
Interpersonal skills
Aspiration level
Degree of self-confidence

The top management team is composed of the
a.
heterogeneous group of advisors selected by the CEO.
b.
CEO and chairperson of the board
c.
key managers who are responsible for selecting and implementing a firm's strategy.
d.
officers listed in a firm's annual report and the board of directors.

C
The top management team is composed of the key individuals who are responsible for selecting and implementing the firm's strategies

A heterogeneous top management team is composed of individuals with
a.
different functional backgrounds, experience, and education.
b.
similar commitments to the organization's core ideology and culture.
c.
a high level of education and industry expertise.
d.
long tenure in the organization who have held various functional positions.

A
a.
different functional backgrounds, experience, and education.
A heterogeneous top management team is composed of individuals with different functional backgrounds, experience, and education

Executive headhunters have approached Charles about taking the position of senior vice president of marketing for a well-known company. Although this company has been highly successful since 1995, Charles has heard persistent rumors of overly aggressive marketing tactics, questionable reporting of sales data, and an atmosphere of intolerance of criticism. The CEO is a powerful and charismatic individual, who built the company from a small regional firm to an international powerhouse in only a decade. The other top managers have been hand-picked by the CEO, as have a number of the members of the board of directors. The salary for this position is very high and includes generous stock options. It would be a major step up in Charles' career and would position him to move to CEO of another company in the future. Charles has prided himself on his high moral values and is viewed as an exceptionally ethical person by his peers. What should Charles do?
a.
Charles should take the job because he can effect real change in the culture of the organization, and take advantage of the personal financial and career opportunities.
b.
Charles should realize that personal moral values and the realities of the corporate world differ in both quality and degree. Consequently, he can take a job in an ethically borderline company without tainting his personal moral standing.
c.
Charles should not rely on rumors to dissuade him from making an advantageous career decision.
d.
Charles should not take the job because the culture of the organization is set by the CEO and other top managers. He would have little influence on the organizational culture as one of many top managers.

D
d.
Charles should not take the job because the culture of the organization is set by the CEO and other top managers. He would have little influence on the organizational culture as one of many top managers.

The more heterogeneous the top management team, the
a.
more difficult it will be for the team to implement strategies.
b.
more likely it is that the team will be cohesive.
c.
less innovative the team's decisions will tend to be.
d.
the less diverse the team membership will be.

A
a.
more difficult it will be for the team to implement strategies.
Heterogeneous teams- different perspectives, innovation, strategic change

Which of the following is NOT associated with heterogeneous top management teams?
a.
higher firm performance
b.
identification of environmental changes
c.
diminished debate among top managers
d.
better strategic decisions

C
Associations with heterogeneous teams- higher firm performance, ID of environmental changes, better strategic decisions, innovation, etc

Normally, the more involved a board of directors is in shaping the firm's strategic direction, the
a.
more balanced the organization is.
b.
higher the corporation's performance is.
c.
more rapidly executive decisions can be make.
d.
more difficult it becomes to make effective executive decisions.

B

A CEO gains power from all of the following circumstances EXCEPT
a.
when many of the outside directors are appointed by the CEO.
b.
when the CEO is also the chairman of the board.
c.
when tenure of the top management team is shorter than the tenure of the board.
d.
the fact that inside board members report to the CEO.

C

CEO duality refers to
a.
firms where there is both a president and a CEO.
b.
CEOs who sit on the board of directors of other firms.
c.
CEOs who hold office in more than one company.
d.
the situation where the CEO is also chairper-son of the board of directors.

D

Which of the statements about CEO duality is FALSE?
a.
CEO duality is associated with high CEO power.
b.
CEO duality has been blamed for slow response to change by the organization.
c.
CEO duality is relatively rare in the U.S. except in large Fortune 500 firms.
d.
CEO duality is associated with the steward-ship theory of organizational leadership.

C

Christina is evaluating Maximum Brands as an investment opportunity. She is very concerned about future financial performance by Maximum Brands. Christina is not a believer in steward-ship theory. Christina will probably NOT invest in Maximum Brands if
a.
there is CEO duality.
b.
many of the members of the board of directors are outsiders.
c.
the positions of chairman of the board and CEO are held by different persons.
d.
there is an independent board leadership structure.

A

Which of the following is NOT related to a CEO having long tenure in his or her position?
a.
more effective strategic control
b.
greater influence on board decisions
c.
more limited perspective
d.
high level of innovation

D

An example of the external labor market is the situation where
a.
an assessment center operated by an external consulting firm evaluates company managers for promotion potential.
b.
a new vice president of marketing is hired from a competitor.
c.
the senior vice president of finance is promoted to CEO.
d.
a vice president of human resources is sent to a university executive MBA program for professional development.

B

Monahegan Plasma Company is facing a dire and immediate crisis that threatens the existence of the company. Rapid decision-making is needed in a volatile and uncertain environment. In this case, Monahegan Plasma would benefit from a
a.
insider CEO with short tenure.
b.
outsider CEO with a heterogeneous top management team.
c.
dual CEO/chairperson with a homogenous top management team.
d.
CEO with long tenure who has a strong sense of hubris.

C

Which of the following is NOT a benefit to the firm using the internal labor market to select a new CEO?
a.
Internal hiring results in an increased level of innovation.
b.
Insiders are familiar with the firm's products.
c.
Use of the internal labor market reduces turnover among existing employees.
d.
Insiders are more familiar with a firm's operating procedures.

A

A CEO's commitment to the status quo is influenced strongly by
a.
his or her relationship with the board of directors.
b.
whether he or she is also the chairperson of the board of directors.
c.
his or her long tenure with the firm.
d.
the level of social capital in the firm.

C

The CEO/chairman of PharmaPacifica was recently killed in an airplane crash. This tragedy has thrown PharmaPacifica into turmoil as there is no one in the organization qualified to step into the former CEO's shoes. This is an example of
a.
a failure of succession management.
b.
managerial hubris.
c.
the risk inherent in CEO duality.
d.
excessive reliance on the internal managerial labor market.

A

Recently, Sony selected Sir Howard Stringer as CEO. Sir Howard is not Japanese and he was not a Sony employee before his selection. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a.
Sony's top management team will be more heterogeneous with the addition of Sir Howard.
b.
Sir Howard will have a broader perspective of the firm and its competitive environment than would a Sony insider.
c.
If Sony's top management team is homoge-neous, Sir Howard's future impact on Sony's strategy is ambiguous.
d.
The decision-making process on Sony's top management team will be smoother and faster with the addition of Sir Howard.

D

As the organizational environment become more complex, heterogeneous and ambiguous, firms need to
a.
create more diverse leadership teams.
b.
focus on their core customer base.
c.
implement transformational leadership.
d.
emphasize the training and development of internal managerial talent.

A

When the top management team is homogeneous and a new CEO is selected from inside the firm, it is
a.
unlikely that the current strategy will change.
b.
likely that product innovation will continue.
c.
likely there will be a change in strategy.
d.
unlikely the new CEO will have a long tenure.

A

The failure of organizations to use the pool of managerial talents held by women can best be termed
a.
deliberate policy of discrimination.
b.
lack of assertiveness by women managers.
c.
managerial isolation from social trends.
d.
an opportunity cost to firms.

D

Which of the following factors most encourages stability in a firm's strategy?
a.
a new CEO hired from outside the firm but within the industry
b.
a homogeneous top management team
c.
a top management team with managers from different functional backgrounds
d.
a new CEO hired from outside the industry

B

The CEO of CLEO, Inc., in all her communications to employees consistently refers to her dream of CLEO becoming the company of choice for employee assistance programs. She keeps this theme uppermost and it is reflected in the firm's motto, the title of its web newsletter, and even on the company t-shirts and mugs. This is an example of the firm's
a.
core ideology.
b.
organizational culture.
c.
strategy.
d.
envisioned future.

D

The firm of Bergeron has existed for hundreds of years, having made exquisite clocks and watches. In its advertising it refers to clocks the firm made for such past royalty as Marie Antoinette and the Czars of Russia. Employees are constantly reminded of the firm's rich history and its long tradition of excellence of design and execution. Bergeron is motivating its employ-ees through its
a.
core ideology.
b.
envisioned future.
c.
organizational culture.
d.
business strategy.

A

Determining the strategic direction for the firm refers to developing
a.
a balanced scorecard.
b.
a tactical response to threats and opportuni-ties.
c.
a specific image and character.
d.
competitive agility and speed.

C

Jack Welch, the former CEO of GE, built GE's profitability, in part, by reducing the number of jobs, cutting costs, making acquisitions, developing a powerful financial services unit, and perhaps through questionable accounting practices. Jeffery Immelt, the new CEO, is making a massive effort to change the organization's strategy to focus on innovation, customer satisfac-tion, and sales growth because the competitive landscape is shifting. Immelt can expect
a.
a smooth transition to the new organiza-tional strategy because of the organizational slack generated by Jack Welch.
b.
to replace the entire top management team because once individuals commit to a core ideology and an envisioned future, they are unlikely to change.
c.
some resistance by organizational stakeholders because they have "bought in" to Jack Welch's organizational strategy.
d.
that he will inherit the "iconic aura" surrounding Jack Welch which will give him credibility with GE's stakeholders.

C

The glass ceiling represents
a.
a barrier that has been broken by women as they have gained professional educations.
b.
the heterogeneity of top management teams in most large U.S. organizations.
c.
the internal psychological barrier women face as they decide whether to pursue top manage-ment positions.
d.
a loss of human capital to the U.S. firms.

D

Amanda is starting a retail business to supply good-quality used office furniture to small businesses. As an entrepreneur without significant personal assets or loans from family members, she is MOST likely to finance her venture through
a.
a loan on her car.
b.
a line of credit from a local bank.
c.
a start-up loan from a government agency.
d.
her personal credit card.

D

The firm's resource that is most susceptible to counterfeiting is its
a.
brand name.
b.
social capital.
c.
customer database.
d.
organizational culture.

A

Most core competencies require
a.
extensive financial assets.
b.
transformational leadership.
c.
high-quality human capital.
d.
an ethical organizational culture.

C

Omicron Artificial Intelligence has a core competency of being able to respond quickly to competitors' actions and to opportunities in the marketplace. This is an example of competitive
a.
agility.
b.
speed.
c.
flexibility.
d.
responsiveness.

B

Human capital refers to the
a.
the net present value of the future compe-tencies of the workforce.
b.
the amount of money purchasers of the firm would pay for the continuing employment of the present workforce.
c.
the value-added that the firm's workforce contributes to each product produced or service rendered.
d.
knowledge and skills of the firm's work force.

D

Which of the following will increase the probability that a lower-level manager will become a successful strategic leader?
a.
appointing many outside board members
b.
increasing the firm's sales
c.
increasing the homogeneity of the top management team
d.
training and development programs

D

The benefits of training and development programs include all of the following EXCEPT
a.
encouraging employees' individual core values.
b.
promoting the firm's strategic vision.
c.
providing a systematic view of the organiza-tion.
d.
building knowledge and skills.

A

The goal of investing in human capital is to
a.
increase the number of employees in the firm.
b.
reduce organizational slack.
c.
maximize current productivity per employee.
d.
develop a workforce capable of continuous learning.

D

Faced with declining enrollment and increased competition from not-for-profit organizations offering inexpensive art courses for new hobbyists, the for-profit Delta Academy of Art has steadfastly stayed true to its mission of offering high-quality classical art instruction for both beginners and advanced artists at high tuition. Delta has been noted for the excellence of its artistic training for decades. This is an example of
a.
competitive agility.
b.
lack of an envisioned future.
c.
competence becoming a liability.
d.
failure to have a clear core ideology.

C

The effective development and management of the firm's ____ may be its only sustainable competitive advantage.
a.
capital base
b.
human capital
c.
technology
d.
organizational culture

B

To successfully implement a firm's strategy, the workforce must be viewed as a
a.
variable cost.
b.
depreciating asset.
c.
resource to be maximized.
d.
renewable asset.

C

Clarita Cosmetics is confronting a decline in sales due largely to a general economic downturn. The top management team is debating whether to lay off employees. In the debate, the following statements are made. Which of the statements is FALSE?
a.
If Clarita Cosmetics lays off a large number of employees, there will be a significant loss of human capital that will cause further down-turns in the firm's performance.
b.
A moderate-sized layoff at Clarita Cosmetics will probably improve firm performance.
c.
If Clarita Cosmetics restructures, it ought to increase investments in training and develop-ment.
d.
A layoff will increase the slack at Clarita Cosmetics and allow the firm to absorb the increased number of errors employees may make until they learn their new tasks.

D

____ capital increases cooperation among individuals inside and outside the firm.
a.
Human
b.
Social
c.
Visionary
d.
Cultural

B

The concept of employee autonomy is most closely related to the concept of
a.
cohesiveness.
b.
loyalty.
c.
charisma.
d.
empowerment.

D

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding effective organizational cultures?
a.
Once a corporate culture is developed, strategic leaders can focus on other activities.
b.
A strategy that is historically new for a firm should be implemented by incremental changes in the organization's culture.
c.
A central task of strategic leaders is to revise the corporate culture on an annual basis after analyzing the changes occurring in the competitive environment.
d.
Organizational culture can be a source of competitive advantage because it influences employee behavior and the firm's conduct in the marketplace.

D

Which of the following is NOT one of the five dimensions thought to characterize an employee's entrepreneurial mindset?
a.
autonomy
b.
reactivity
c.
risk taking
d.
innovativeness

B

The top management team at Ingenuity, Inc., has assigned a team of scientists to a multi-year project to investigate the viability of growing large amounts of fur from cloned cells of minks and foxes to produce no-kill fur products for coats and other clothing items. This idea would satisfy all the dimensions of the entrepreneurial orientation EXCEPT
a.
innovativeness.
b.
risk taking.
c.
proactiveness.
d.
competitive autonomy.

D

The CEO of Icon Image Associates wishes to radically change the corporate culture of the firm. She knows that she must convince others at Icon Image of the necessity for the culture change and gain their active support. The CEO knows that the key players in energizing the culture change and fostering alignment with the new strategic vision are
a.
the members of the board of directors.
b.
top management team members.
c.
middle managers.
d.
rank-and-file employees.

C

Competitive aggressiveness describes a firm's
a.
tendency to engage in new ideas and creative processes.
b.
willingness to allow employees to take actions free of organizational constraints.
c.
ability to be a leader in the marketplace.
d.
propensity to take actions that allow it to outperform rivals consistently and substantially.

D

Shaping and reinforcing a new organizational culture requires all of the following EXCEPT
a.
effective communication.
b.
effective performance appraisals.
c.
adherence to the firm's traditional core values.
d.
an appropriate reward system.

C

The new CEO of MCI (formerly the scandal-plagued WorldCom) required the top 300 executives to sign an ethics pledge in an attempt to restore investor confidence in the company. This was an effort to
a.
change the corporate culture.
b.
evade federal prosecution for WorldCom's actions.
c.
institutionalize managerial opportunism.
d.
institute a balanced scorecard.

A

Organizational controls provide
a.
the parameters within which strategies are to be implemented.
b.
goals and objectives that must be achieved.
c.
information on action steps to be taken to implement the corporate strategy.
d.
managers with guidelines on how to treat employees.

A

One of the conclusions to be drawn from the internal conflict generated by the merger of Morgan Stanley and Dean Witter is that
a.
transformational leadership requires an environment of consensus in order to be effective.
b.
human capital is easier to lose than to create.
c.
culture change should be not be undertaken when the firm is earning below-average returns.
d.
the employees who leave a firm during temporary upheavals tend to be the poor performers.

B

Managerial opportunism occurs when managers
a.
behave in an unethical or illegal manner to benefit the firm.
b.
have few opportunities in the internal labor market and abandon the firm for other organizations.
c.
take actions that benefit themselves, but are detrimental to the firm's owners.
d.
act in ways that benefit their own firm to the unfair disadvantage of competitors.

C

The practices associated with an ethical culture have become institutionalized in the firm if they
a.
are integrated to form a written code of ethics.
b.
are mentioned in the firm's mission statement.
c.
are first embraced by the CEO of the company.
d.
become the set of actions accepted by most of the firm's employees and stakeholders.

D

As much as ____ percent of the failure of new venture firms can be attributed to white- collar crime.
a.
10
b.
20
c.
30
d.
40

C

Managerial actions that support development of an ethical organizational culture include all of the following EXCEPT
a.
establishing a code of conduct.
b.
using internal auditing procedures to support the firm's ethical standards.
c.
continuously revising the code of conduct.
d.
disciplining whistle-blowers.

D

Actions that effective strategic leaders can take to develop an ethical organizational culture include all of the following EXCEPT
a.
relying on the fundamental goodness of individuals.
b.
using reward systems that recognize acts of courage.
c.
communicating goals that describe the firm's ethical standards.
d.
creating a work environment where individuals are treated with dignity.

A

The Enron employee who reported the financial manipulations at the company to her superiors can be considered to have engaged in
a.
managerial opportunism.
b.
white-collar crime.
c.
vindictive disloyalty.
d.
an act of courage.

D

The ____ is a framework firms can use to verify that they have established both strategic and financial controls.
a.
managerial model
b.
holistic control system
c.
balanced scorecard
d.
internal auditing system

C

____ provide information about the results of past actions, but do not communicate the drivers of the firm's future performance.
a.
Financial controls
b.
Accounting information systems
c.
Policies and procedures
d.
Strategic feedback systems

A

The premise of the balanced scorecard is that firms tend to
a.
overemphasize financial controls and neglect strategic controls.
b.
overemphasize strategic control and neglect financial controls.
c.
overemphasize strategic and financial controls and neglect ethical controls.
d.
neglect short-term controls of all kinds in favor of long-term strategic controls.

A

Financial controls focus on the view of the firm by the
a.
customer.
b.
employee.
c.
shareholder.
d.
general society.

C

An emphasis on ____ controls produces short-term and risk-averse managerial decisions.
a.
strategic
b.
corporate culture
c.
financial
d.
balanced organizational

C

In the balanced scorecard framework ____ controls are used to assess the organization's success in creating a climate that supports change and innovation.
a.
learning and growth
b.
financial
c.
operational
d.
innovational

A

Criteria for reevaluating internal business processes using the balanced scorecard include all of the following EXCEPT
a.
asset utilization improvements.
b.
improvements in employee morale.
c.
increases in employee skills.
d.
changes in turnover rates.

C

Which of the following is NOT one of the four perspectives in the balanced scorecard framework?
a.
entrepreneurial
b.
financial
c.
customer
d.
learning and growth

A

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