Breaks down food into smaller parts that are more easily absorbed in the bloodstream
allows the body to nourish the cells
beginning of the digestive tract
taking the first bite of food
Digestion starts when...?
breaks down the food into smaller pieces
mixes with the food and breaks it down into a form more easily absorbed by the body
Food is received when...?
Muscular contractions that push the food down the esophagus into the stomach
hollow organ that holds the food that is received by the esophagus
holds the food while it is mixed with enzymes that help break it down
What is secreted in the stomach to help digest food?
moves to the small intestine
When food is processed, it...?
Most of the digestion takes place here
Divided into three sections
duodenum, ileum, jejenum
three sections of the small intestine
receives bile and enzymes from the pancreas and liver
responsible for continuing the breakdown of food into the body
ileum and jejunem
absorb nutrients into bloodstream
secretes digestive enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats
chief hormone for metabolizing sugar
processes nutrients absorbed from the small intestine
bile from the liver
important in the digestion of fat in the small intestine
takes raw materials absorbed by the small intestine and makes all the various chemicals that the body needs
detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals (alcohol) and breaks down and secretes drugs
stores and concentrates bile
releases bile into duodenum to help with digestion
another name for the large intestine
transports waste out of the body
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
five parts of the large intestine
reabsorbs water (and the minerals it contains) back into the bloodstream
food debris and bacteria
feces is made mostly up of...?
Approximate amount of time it takes for feces to move through the colon
connects to the rectum and empties feces into the rectum when full
receives stool from the colon and holds it until removed
lets the person know there is stool to be evacuated
in the anus, contracts when the person does not want to release gas/stool, relaxes when releasing them
last part of the digestive tract
comprised of a two-inch-long tube and two sphincters
internal and external
two types of sphincters
surrounded by sphincter muscles that control stool
specialized lining in the anus
detects rectal contents (gas, liquid, solid)
always tight, unless stool is in rectum
holds stool until the person is ready to release the contents
starts in any part of the stomach
exact cause is unknown
risk factors: alcohol, tobacco, 55 or older, previous stomach surgery, male, type A blood
symptoms: indigestion, heartburn, pain in abdomen, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea or constipation
open sore or lesion, usually found on the skin or mucus membrane areas of the body
primary cause: bacteria called Helicobacter pylori
risk factors: smoking, caffiene, alcohol, emotional or physical stress, acid and pepsin
symptoms: belching, nausea, vomiting
treatment: lifestyle changes, surgery, medication, antibiotics
physically break food down into smaller pieces, purpose is to increase surface area
breaking the macromolecules into their monomers
taking nutrients into the bloodstream
what type of digestion do the teeth and tongue use?
what type of digestion do the salivary glands use?
enzyme that breaks down starches
food after it's been chewed and mixed with saliva
what type of digestion does hydrochloric acid use?
what type of digestion does pepsin use?