religious group/Muslims/partisans of Ali /2nd largest tradition of Islam
the largest tradition of slam .
marks the first date on the official calendar of Islam ... Muhammad's emigration with his followers from mecca to Medina
born in mecca, prophet of Islam,
temporal leader of the Islamic community.. political religious state that encompassed the Muslim community
the holy scriptures of Islam... Muslim holy book.. sacred book of Islam
is Arabic for "struggle, effort, to strive, to exert, to fight," understood as "holy war"
Five pillars of faith
faith, prayer, fasting, paying alms, and hajj
Is the movement of Bantu speaking people to Africa
a strip of land that divides the desert from wetter areas ...
trans Saharan trade
food products and manufactured goods from Carthage across the dessert in exchange for salt,gold,copper,skis,etc,and perhaps slaves
1st west Africa kingdom based on the gold and salt trade
Kingdom built on gold /wealthy/ where the kingdoms where the kings lived/
on the first civilizations to appear on the African continent emerged in the Nile river valley . "hermit kingdom" home of Prester John
Mai's most famous Ruler " ruler of Mali"
Arab traveler who described Africa societies and cultures in his travel records
important trade center in Mali ... part of the Mali empire/ center of Islamic learning
coastal area of east Africa inhabited by the Swahili people / mixed of African-Arabian
a powerful southeast African city ( the capital of ancient trading empire)
An ancient Indian empire
Bridge or tunnel spanning between Chukka and peninsula - linking Asia and north America
American Indian inhabitant of the canyons of northern Arizona and new Mexico and Southwestern Colorado
was a mound-building .. began in the ms river
oldest civilization in the American/mesoamerica .... builders, mesoamericans , engaged in fishing and hunting
Mesoamerica/ made from city states that were independent from each other / stretched from south Mexico to north central America
built temples and pyramids/ carved large shapes of armed warriors.... warlike people ... worshiped a fierce god who demanded blood and human sacrifice
poor migrating people from northern Mexico found work as soldiers
Mexico city named used when it was the capital of the Aztec empire
was the Aztec god of the Sun and the war.
Andean civilization culture flourished along the southern coast of Peru... developed extensive irrigation systems including underground canals..... also known for beautiful textiles and pottery
wealthy/ rituals/terrorist defeated by the Indians .. they mastered farming and bulding trapizoid doors/windows .. and grew potatoes
an Inca sacred place in the Andean mountains of Peru..built by the Incas
the last indigenous leader of the inca state in peru / executed
(corn) olmecs, maya, and the aztecs all depended on this