expansion bus

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The expansion bus connects to _______

Either the Northbridge or the Southbridge or both.

in modern PC's the system crystal does this:

it mainly pushes the CPU, RAM, and Chipset

This determines the speed of the expansion bus:

The Expansion bus Crystal

The original Expansion Bus Crystal's speed

~7Mhz

The original expansion bus

The PC Bus, or XT Bus

Who invented the PC Bus?

IBM Invented it.

IBM Stands for:

International Business Machines

Stats for the original PC Bus:

8 bits wide / 7Mhz / Manual configuration

AT-BUS

Advanced Technology Bus,
invented by IBM, named after the computer it was first used in. it was an extension to the PC BUS.

AT-BUS STATS

16 bits wide / 7Mhz / Manual configuration

ISA

Industry Standard Architecture

industry standard architecture Bus

A pool of PC-bus clone makers pooled there knowledge of the IBM buses and invented the ISA BUS

ISA BUS STATS

16bit wide / 7Mhz / Manual Configuration

The 3 False starts at replacing the ISA BUS

IBM Micro Channel Architecture (MCA)
Extended ISA (EISA)
Vesa Local Bus (VL-BUS)

MCA

IBM Micro Channel Architecture (MCA)
An attempt at replacing ISA, but it proved too expensive.

EISA

Extended ISA
An attempt at replacing the ISA BUS, but it proved too expensive.

VL-BUS

Vesa Local Bus (Video Electronic standards association.

An attempt at replacing the ISA BUS.

PCI (4 items)

1. Stands for Peripheral Component Interconnect
2. Developed by Intel
3. 32 bits wide / 33 Mhz / Auto config(PnP)
4. Allows for multiple types of buses.

AGP (2)

1. Accelerated Graphics Port
2. A Special PCI slot that connects directly to the northbridge

PCI-X (3)

1. PCI-Extended
2. Seen mostly only in very high end systems like servers.
3. 64bit wide bus.

PCI-X Speeds (4)

PCI-X 66
PCI-X 133
PCI-X 266
PCI-X 533

MINI-PCI

PCI IN A SMALL FORM FACTOR FOR LAPTOPS, THE CARD LAYS FLAT.

PCIe

PCI express

What does PCIe connect to?

It connects directly to the northbridge

what kind of connection does PCIe use?

point to point serial connection, using its on bus.

What are Lanes?

Lanes are the two wires used by PCIe to communicate with the northbridge one lane receives while the other sends.

what speed do PCIe lanes run at?

2.5 or 5 Gbs

How many point-to-point connections can a PCIe card use? What is its bandwidth? What is most common?

1,2,4,8,16,or 32
Theoretically 320 Gbs Bandwidth
x1 or x4 is common for general use.
video cards usually use x16

communication is the same as

System resources

System resources (4)

I/O Addresses
IRQS
DMA Channels
Memory Addresses

I/O Addresses are listed in this way?

they are listed in the device manager as Hex Values.

IRQ (2)

Interrupt request
This is how a device gets the CPU's attention.

INT (2)

Interrupt Wire
Devices send an IRQ on this wire

PIC (3)

1. Programable Interrupt Controller
2. A now obsolete: a traffic controller for IRG's
3. Only supports 15 IRQ's

IOAPIC (3)

1. I/O Advanced Programable Interrupt Controller
2. Usually built into the southbridge
3. This recieves the IRQ's from devices the charges the INT wire to the Processor.

IRQ-9

This is the IRQ belonging to the IOAPIC

COM Port

Communication port.
-preset combinations of I/O Addresses for the serial ports

LPT

Line Printer.
-preset combinations of I/O Addresses for the parallel ports

COM IRQ's

COM1 = IRQ4
COM2 = IRQ3
COM3 = IRQ4
COM4 = IRQ3

LPT IRQ'S

LPT1 = IRQ7
LPT2 = IRQ5

DMA (3)

DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS
THIS IS USED WHEN A DEVICE ACCESSES MEMORY DIRECTLY. MOST COMMON IN LAPTOPS

8237

DMA CONTROLLER

DMA CONTROLLER

ALSO KNOWN AS THE 8237
HANDLES ALL DMA FUNCTIONS
ASSIGNS DMA CHANNELS TO DEVICES

BUS MASTERING

DEVICES WITH BUILT IN CIRCUITRY THE USE DMA WITHOUT THE NEED OF A DMA CONTROLLER

DOES PCI/PCIe USE DMA?

NO, THEY DO NOT USE DMA.

MEMORY ADDRESSES FOR CARDS

SOMETIMES A CARD WILL NEED MEMORY ADDRESSES SO THAT THE CPU CAN ACCESS ITS ONBOARD MEMORY. THIS IS AUTOMATIC.

HCL

THIS USED TO BE THE WINDOWS
HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY LIST. NOW IT IS THE WINDOWS LOGO'D HARDWARE LIST.

WHQL

WINDOWS HARDWARE QUALITY LABS, WHERE DRIVERS GET THE MICROSOFT SIGNED STATUS

64 BIT WINDOWS WILL NOT LET YOU DO THIS?

INSTALL UNSIGNED DRIVERS

WHAT MAINLY USES DMA ON MODERN SYSTEMS?

FLOPPY DRIVES

A RED X IN DEVICE MANAGER MEANS WHAT?

THE DEVICE HAS A BAD CONNECTION, OR A BAD DRIVER, OR ITS A BAD CARD.

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