a social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common.
societies that use the technology of large-scale farming, including animal-drawn or energy-powered plows and equipment, to produce their food supply.
a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself.
a social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender.
people who make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members.
an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters.
a system of social inequality in which people's status is permanently determined at birth based on their parents' ascribed characteristics.
Karl Marx's term for the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class.
a type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work that people do.
Percentage of crimes that involve official arrest records and are assigned a court date
Alliance created in attempt to reach a shared objective or goal
groups people are forced to join, goal is resocialization
crime involving someone using a computer to gain illegal access or when a computer becomes a target of illegal activities
the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group.
people experience weak or strong ties that affect their chances of becoming deviant (attachment, involvement, commitment and beliefs) Hirschi's theory
illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support.
When a company engages in illegal behavior that jeopardizes the health of their employees or consumers
official statistics that reflect reported crimes only
leaders who encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building.
any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant cultural norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
the proposition that individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity.
the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation.
a group composed of two members.
the study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves.
when someone uses someone else for their own personal gain
an approach to leadership that provides emotional support for members.
a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals
a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability.
a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values.
a group that consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence.
the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise.
increase in position or pay, but no change in stratification level
societies based on technology that supports the cultivation of plants to provide food.
societies that use simple technology for hunting animals and gathering vegetation.
an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy). (division of labor, hierarchy, rules, merit based employment, and impersonality)
Erving Goffman's term for people's efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image.
societies based on technology that mechanizes production.
a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
goal- or task-oriented leadership.
the social movement (upward or downward) experienced by family members from one generation to the next.
the social movement (upward or downward) of individuals within their own lifetime.
a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people.
the proposition that deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by others.
leaders who are only minimally involved in decision making and who encourage group members to make their own decisions.
someone that influences other peoples behavior
Max Weber's term for the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care.
the most important status that a person occupies.
Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds.
a web of social relationships that links one person with other people and, through them, with other people they know.
the transfer of information between persons without the use of words.
group we join voluntarily when we want to pursue some common interest or gain personal satisfaction
illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs.
circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels.
Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence.
a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit.
a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility.
societies based on technology that supports the domestication of large animals to provide food, typically emerging in mountainous regions and areas with low amounts of annual rainfall.
societies in which technology supports a service and information-based economy.
according to Max Weber, the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others.
the respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others.
the initial act of rule-breaking.
Charles Horton Cooley's term for a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
rational choice theory
the belief that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of nonconventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved in such actions.
the process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures.
a group that strongly influences a person's behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.
a situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time.
a situation in which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity.
people you interact with when you carry out your roles for your status
how a person actually plays a role.
all expected behaviors that go along with status
a condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies.
a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
the process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior.
a larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more-impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.
self fulfilling prophecy
the situation in which a false belief or prediction produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.
Self Report Offender Surveys
anonymous self-reports reveal much higher rates than those found in official statistics
a number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic, such as education level, age, race, or gender.
social construction of reality
the process by which our perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience.
a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.
the process by which people act toward or respond to other people; the foundation for all relationships and groups in society.
the movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another.
extent to which a society holds itself together or maintains stability
the complex framework of societal institutions (such as the economy, politics, and religion) and the social practices (such as rules and social roles) that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on people's behavior.
a combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education.
a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties.
collectivity of statuses that you occupy
a material sign that informs others of a person's specific status.
the proposition that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals. MERTON
the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources.
Sub cultural Theories
Theory that proposes that people commit deviant acts because of their ties to a deviant subculture
a group composed of three members.
Groups joined either voluntarily or by force, provide us with material reward
upward or downward movement between stratification levels
moral crimes: victimless crimes that don't involve a complaining party, are performed voluntarily and always involve a moral question
annual survey developed by bureau of justice, 100,000 random sample interviewed to determine actual crime rates including unreported ones
the value of all of a person's or family's economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property.