What chemically occurs in alcohol fermentation?
Pyruvate loses a CO2 and forms Acetaldehyde, then oxidizes NADH forming NAD+ and Ethanol
What chemically occurs in lactic acid fermentation?
Pyruvate oxidizes NADH forming NAD+ and Lactic acid
When the oxygen supply to muscle cells lags behind the rate of glucose metabolism, _____________.
the pyruvate generated in glycolysis is reduced to lactic acid
Cellular respiration (stage 2 of glucose catabolism) can be broken down into three stages: ______, ______, and ______.
pyruvate decarboxylation, the citric acid cycle (kreb's cycle), and the electron transport chain
Where is pyruvate transported in pyruvate decarboxylation?
the pyruvate produced in glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix.
Acetyl CoA is a _______ molecule.
Names for the citric acid cycle:
Krebs cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA)
Explain how pyruvate is decarboxylized.
it loses a CO2 and the acetyl group that remains is combined with coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA [reducing NAD+ into NADH in the process]
What immediately happens to acetyl CoA in the Krebs cycle?
acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate (citric acid)
What does citrate turn into in the Krebs cycle?
What happens to isocitrate in the Krebs cycle?
it reduces NAD+ into NADH and releases CO2 forming alpha-ketoglutarate
What happens to alpha-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle?
it reduces NAD+ into NADH and releases CO2 forming succinyl CoA
What happens to succinyl CoA in the Krebs cycle?
it donates a phosphate group to GDP to form GTP and succinate (the GTP donates its phosphate group to ADP forming ATP)
What happens to succinate in the Krebs cycle?
it reduces FAD into FADH2 and forms fumerate
What happens to fumarate in the Krebs cycle?
it combines with water to form malate
What happens to malate in the Krebs cycle?
it reduces NAD+ into NADH and forms oxaloacetate
What happens to oxaloacetate in the Krebs cycle?
it combines with acetyl CoA to form citrate (citric acid), starting the Krebs cycle over again
For each turn of the citric acid cycle, ___ ATP is produced.
For each turn of the citric acid cycle, ___ NADH is produced.
For each turn of the citric acid cycle, ___ FADH2 is produced.
What is the net reaction of the citric acid cycle (per glucose molecule?
2Acetyl CoA + 6NAD+ + 2FAD + 2ADP + 2P + 4H2O => 4CO2 + 6NADH + 2FADH2 + 2ATP + 4H+ + 2CoA
What are the net energy products of the Krebs cycle?
6NADH, 2FADH2, 2ATP
Where is pyruvate converted to Acetyl CoA?
Where does the TCA cycle occur?
Everything that happens in the Kreb's cycle are _____________ reactions.