What are the Lipids in blood circulation?
chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL
What does lipoprotein lipase do?
breaks apart triglyceride so their fatty acids and glycerol can be taken up
What is Atherosclerosis?
the narrowing & hardening of blood vessels (makes it harder to get oxygen) that supply blood to the heart muscle, brain & other parts of the body
What is Coronary Heart Disease?
heart not receiving enough blood
brain not receiving enough blood
What are the risk factors for Heart Disease?
Diabetes (fasting blood sugar > 126 mg/100ml), triglycerids (> 150mg/100ml), LDL (>100mg/100ml), HDL (>40mg/100ml), dietary cholesterol, saturated fat, trans fat, excess energy
What makes a heart healthy diet?
low saturated fat, low trans fat, low cholesterol, weight control, fiber intake, omega-3 fatty acids, exercise, nuts, fruits, veggies, whole grains
How is glycerol metabolized?
glycerol -> pyruvate -> acetyl CoA OR glucose (if needed) -> TCA
How are fatty acids metabolized?
fatty acids -> beta-oxidation -> acetyl-CoA-> TCA
Beta-oxidation..what kind of reaction? where does it occur? what does it do?
catabolic reaction, occurs in the mitochondria, keeps breaking fatty acids into releasing 2 carbons at a time
Acetyl CoA to the TCA cycle..what does acetyl CoA combine with? what happens to acetylCoA if enough carbs.?
combines with oxaloacetate, if not enough carbs. acetylCoA becomes converted to ketones in the liver
Ketones..when is it?..what does it do?
used for energy when there is not enough oxaloacetate, spares proteins
Proteins..what are they made up of? how many are there? how many essential/non-essential?
made up of chains of amino acids, there are 20, 11 non-essential, 9 essential
Limiting Amino Acid
essential amino acid that is missing or in small in supply
High Quality Proteins
foods containing all the essential amino acids in sufficient qty.
lean meats, low fat or fat free dairy, soy
when 2 or more dietary proteins are combined to compensate for deficiencies
Nonessential Amino Acids
can be made in our bodies by transamination which is when carbon skeleton often comes from carb. or fat-derived metabolites
-enzymes and hormones
-fluid and electrolyte balance
-maintain pH balance
Proteolysis..what does it do?
-breaking down protein into amino acids
Deamination..what does it do?
amine group breaks away from amino acid and combines with others to make urea
Carbon Skeletons Energy Production
backbone can be used to make pyruvate or acetyl coA or oxaloacetate
Proteins can be broken down into...which can be converted to glucose?
Ketogenic and Glucogenic amino acids, only glucogenic amino acids can be converted to glucose
severely inadequate intakes of protein, energy and other nutrients
severely inadequate intake of protein only