IPAP Microbio Exam 5 Leishmania

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Leishmania present three clinical pictures, cutaneous, visceral, and muco-cutaneous. Each of these are associated with their own genus and species. Name the genus-species associated with each clinical presentation.

Leishmania tropica - cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmania braziliensis - mucocutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmania donovani - visceral leishmaniasis

Name the vector for leishmaniasis.

Sandflies

What is a common name of cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Iraq?

Badhdad Boil

Which cells are parasitized by leishmania?

Cells of the reticulo-endothelial system, macrophages.

True/False. Leishmania infections are easily diagnosed with a simple blood smear.

False. Traditional diagnosis has been Giemsa stained tissue smears, and skin scrapings.

True/False: Cattle and sheep are the reservoir hosts of Leishmaniasis.

False. Dogs and rodents are important reservoir hosts of Leishmania.

What is the name of the flagellated stage of the leishmania parasite that is injected when the vector takes a blood meal?

The promastigote (from mastix meaning whip - flagella in this case) is injected by the vector.

What is the name of the stage of the leishmania parasite that is taken up by macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system?

Amastigotes are found in the macrophages. (From mastix, meaning whip - flagella in this case). This form is without flagella thus the name amastigote - without whip or flagella.

If a soldier presents with a skin lesion that is difficult to heal, and the soldier has a travel history that includes a recent deployment to Iraq, what parasitic disease might you add to your differential diagnosis?

Cutaneous leishmaniasis.

What would be the specimen of choice for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis?

Skin scrapings.

Name the three clinical presentations of leishmania and the genus and species associated with each.

Leishmania tropica - cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmania braziliensis - muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmania donovani - visceral leishmaniasis

Name the 3 species of leishmania

Leishmania donovani
Leishmania tropica, Leishmania major
Leishmania braziliensis

Intermediate host of leishmania

Phlebotomine sandflies (Leishmania - intracellular protozoa)

Stages and location in man of leishmania

Promastigotes macrophages

Amastigotes
tissue cells (inclu macrophages)

Clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmania

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: one or morelesions following sandfly feeding; range in size and appearance over time; look like a volcano, with raised edge and central crater; develops scab, can be painful or painless; some have swollen glands near sores

Clinical manifestation of visceral leishmania

Visceral Leishmaniasis: manifests with fever, weight loss, enlarged spleen/liver (spleen larger than liver), some have swollen glands; blood tests may be abnormal (i.e. low RBC and WBC and platlets); can be opportunisitic infex of HIV

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