sociology final

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Questions that may be on Dr. Rivers soci 1101 final

Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?

control theory

All of the following theories follow the principles of symbolic interactionism EXCEPT for which one?

Strain theory

Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.

degradation ceremonies

Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.

Crimes

The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.

differential association theory

Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.

inner control

The early sociologist who argued that deviance might be functional for society was ________.

Emile Durkheim

The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?

symbolic interactionism

What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?

social control

Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.

positive sanction

What term would Karl Marx use for today's workers who mistakenly identify with the capitalists simply because they own a few shares of stock or work as managers of large corporations?

false class consciousness

What is the basis of India's caste system?

Religion

A system of beliefs that justifies a particular social arrangement, such as slavery, is called ________.

an ideology

What is the significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery, caste, and estate?

The class system has fluid boundaries

In some societies, closely related members of the ruling class and the upper class marry to preserve their power and wealth within their families. This is a practice known as ________.

Endogamy

If a person were living during Karl Marx's lifetime and worked at the Smittertown ironworks, Marx would consider that person a member of the ________.

Proletariat

The sociologist who believed that social class is made up of three components - property, power, and prestige - was ________.

Max Weber

A form of the caste system that, until recently, was legal in South Africa was called ________.

Apartheid

The ability to control others, even over their objections, is referred to as ________.

Power

The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.

social stratification

Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?

A uterus in women

The term for the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person's sex is ________.

Gender stratification

What stage in history did Frederick Engels propose as being responsible for the rise of patriarchy?

The development of private property

The fact that 80 percent of engineering degrees are awarded to men while nearly 90 percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates the phenomenon of ________.

Gender tracking

What is the practice of suttee?

Burning the living widow with the body of her dead husband

Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion most likely illustrates ________.

the "glass ceiling"

Of the following choices, the doctorate conferred with the greatest percentage of women recipients is ________, while the doctorate with the greatest percentage to men is ________.

psychology; engineering

In what society were women and men often considered social equals?

hunting and gathering

While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.

Biological

What classification or terminology do sociologists apply to women that describe their inability to gain equal access to power, property, and prestige?

minority group

Edinboro University of Pennsylvania is one of the largest "wheelchair" universities in the United States, providing access of all programs to all students and establishing special wheelchair programs in sports competition. This is an example of ________.

Mainstreaming

What event created the belief that formal education was essential to the well-being of society?

the industrialization of society

What do conflict theorists believe is the purpose of the hidden curriculum?

It promotes social inequalities.

A sociologist who studied face-to-face interactions in the classroom between teachers and students would be emphasizing which sociological perspective?

Symbolic interactionism

One of the functions performed by schools is to promote a sense of national identity and stabilize the political system. This function is referred to as ________.

social integration

Although cooperation is a core value in Japan, Japanese students are admitted to college only on the basis of intense competition. This is an example of a(n) ________.

cultural contradiction

From a functionalist perspective, what is the teaching of knowledge and skills which reinforces positive consequences in students?

manifest functions

What is the process by which schools pass a society's core values from one generation to the next?

cultural transmission of values

Determining which people will enter what occupation is a function of education referred to as ________.

Gatekeeping

When employers use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even through the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work, it becomes a ________ society.

credential

John was adopted as an infant by the Smiths, and has always considered them his real family. What do sociologists classify the Smith family as it is regarded by John?

It is his family of orientation.

Sociologically, what is a family?

Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption.

In Bongo Bongo, male members of the tribe may each legally have three wives. This is a family relationship defined as ________.

Polygyny

Sociologically, what is the immediate family of husband, wife, and children called who live apart from other kin?

The nuclear family

In the United States, what is the choice of a marriage partner most dependent upon?

It is influenced by age, education, class, race and religion.

In the United States and many other parts of the world, the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. This marital practice is called ________.

Endogamy

Marianne and her children live in a neighborhood where all the families share their resources when someone needs help. The neighbors also consider themselves to be an extended family. Sociologists would describe them as ________ .

Fictive kin

The feeling of sexual attraction and idealization of another is called ________.

Romantic love

Boomerang children is a term used to refer to children ________.

Who have moved out as young adults, then return to live with their parents.

In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. This pattern of marital behavior is called ________.

Exogamy

_____ predicted that bureaucracies would increasingly govern our lives. He called this process the rationalization of society.

Max Weber

Edith is a member of the Girl Scouts. The Girl Scouts are an example of a _____.

Voluntary association

Sociologist Robert Michels used the term _____ to refer to the tendency of organizations to become dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite.

The iron law of oligarchy

Recently, the March of Dimes shifted its focus from raising funds for combating polio to raising funds for birth defects research. Sociologists would term this shift in focus _____.

Goal displacement

_____ may impede the purpose of an organization because it may prevent employees from doing their jobs.

Red tape

Howard Becker says deviance is defined by the:

Reaction of others to the act of deviance

According to the textbook, mental illness and homelessness are:

Reciprocal

A tertiary deviant embraces deviance. An example would be:

An outlaw biker gang

"Good companions make good boys; bad companions make bad boysquot; exemplifies:

Differential association

Official crime statistics appear to:

Have a social class bias

In Brazil poverty is so extensive in the slums. One solution has been to:

Organize death squads to murder poor children.

The ____ was an ideology that justified social stratification in medieval Europe:

Divine right of kings

According to Melvin Tumin, the best predictor of college entrance is:

The family income of the student

One of the greatest fears of this class is being laid off during a recession:

Working class

The primary dimension of social class is:

Wealth

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