refers to the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome-including a psychological research finding-that one would have foreseen it.
is careful reasoning that examines assumptions,discerns hidden values,evaluates evidence,and assessed conclusions.
is an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
is a testable prediction, often implied by a theory, testing the hypothesis helps scientists to test the theory.
are precise statements of the procedures(operations) used to define independent and dependent variables.
is the process of repeating an experiment, often with different participants and in different situations, to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other people and circumstances.
is a descriptive research strategy in which one person is studied in great depth,often with the intention of revealing universal principles.
is a descriptive research strategy in which a representative, random sample of people are questioned about their attitudes or behavior.
false consensus effect
is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
consists of all members of a group being studied.
is one that is representative because every member of the population has an equal chance of being included.
involves observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control situation.
is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well one factor can be predicted from the other. correlation can be positive or negative.
ex: if there is a positive correlation between air temperature and ice cream sales, the warmer(higher) it is, the more ice cream is sold. if there is a negative correlation between air temperature and sales of cocoa, the cooler(lower) it is , the more cocoa is sold.
is a depiction of the relationship between two variables by means of a graphed cluster of dots.
is the false perception of relationship between two events when none exists.
is a research strategy in which a researcher directly manipulates one or more factors(independent variables) in order to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable); experiments therefore make it possible to establish cause-effect relationships.
is an inert substance or condition that is administered as a test of whether an experimental participant, who mistakenly thinks a treatment is in effect, behaves the same as he or she would if the treatment were actually present.
is a control procedure in which neither the experimenter nor the research participants are aware of which condition is in effect. It is used to prevent experimenters'and participants' expectations from influencing the results of an experiment.
is any effect on behavior caused by a placebo.
experimental condition of an experiment
is one in which participants are exposed to the independent variable being studied.
ex: in the study of the effects of a new drug on reaction time,participants in the experimental condition would actually receive the drug being tested.
control condition of an experiment
is one in which the treatment of the interest, or independent variable, is withheld so that comparison to the experiment condition can be made.
ex: the control condition of an experiment testing the effect of new drug on reaction time would be a group of participants given a placebo(inactive drug or sugar pill)instead of the drug being tested.
is the procedure of assigning participants to the experimental and control conditions by chance in order to minimize preexisting differences between the groups.
independent variable of an experiment
is the factor being manipulated and tested by the investigator.
ex:in the study of the effects of a new drug on a reaction time,the drug is the independent variable.
dependent variable of an experiment
is the factor being measured by the investigator.
ex:in the study of the effects of a new drug on reaction time, the participants' reaction time is the dependent variable.
is the most frequently occurring score in a distribution; it is the simplest measure of central tendency to determine.
is the arithmetic average, the measure of central tendency computed by adding the scores in a distribution and dividing by the number of scores.
is another measure of central tendency,is the score that falls at the 50th percentile,cutting a distribution in half.
ex:when the mean of a distribution is affected by a few extreme scores, the median is the more appropriate measure of central tendency.
is a measure of variation computed as the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
is the average amount by which the scores in a distribution deviate around the mean.because it is based on every score in the distribution, it is a more precise measure of variation than the range.
it means that an obtained result, such as the difference between the averages for two examples,very likely reflects a real difference rather than sampling variation or chance factors. tests of statistical significance help researchers decide when they can justifiably generalize from an observed instance.
is the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.