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allele

Form of a gene

codominance

Both alleles are completely expressed.

crossing over

Homologous chromosomes exchange portions of the chromatids during meiosis

diploid

Cell with two sets of homologous chromosomes

gamete

Egg or sperm cell

genotype

Genetic makeup of a an organism

haploid

Cell with one set of homologous chromosomes

heterozygous

Having two different alleles for a particular gene

homologous

Chromosomes where one set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent.

homozygous

Having two identical alleles for a particular gene.

hybrid

Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

incomplete dominance

Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another.

meiosis

The number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half.

multiple alleles

Gene that has more than two alleles

phenotype

Physical characteristics of an organism

Polygenic traits

Trait controlled by two or more genes

principle of dominance

Some alleles are dominant and some are recessive

principle of independent assortment

Genes ofr different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.

trait

Specific characteristic of an individual that varies.

interphase

chromosomes replicate and chromatin condenses

prophase 1

-pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs, each chromosome consists of two chromatids and crossing over occurs

metaphase 1

chromosome centromeres attach to spindle fibers and HC line up at the equator

anaphase 1

HC separate and move to opposite poles of the cell

telophase 1

the spindle fibers break down, chromosomes uncoil and form two nuclei, the cell divides

prophase 2

chromosomes condense, spindles form in the new cells and attach to chromosomes.

metaphase 2

centromeres of chromosomes line up randomly at the equator of each cell.

anaphase 2

centromeres split, sr. chromatids separate and move to opposite poles

telophase 2

four nuclei form around chromosomes, spindles break down, cells divide.

products

four new cells have formed, each nuleus contains a haploid number of chromosomes.

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