Chapter 12 Skin: The Integumentary System

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actinic keratosis

is a precancerous skin growth that occurs on sun-damaged skin. It often looks like a red scaly patch and feels like sandpaper. Precancerous describes a growth that is not yet malignant; however, if not treated, it is likely to become malignant.

albinism

is a genetic condition
characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and irises of the eyes

alopecia

also known as baldness, is the partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp

blepharoplasty

also known as a lid lift, is the surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing excess fat, skin, and muscle

bulla

is a large blister that is usually more than 0.5 cm in diameter

carbuncle

is a cluster of connected furuncles (boils).

cellulitis

is an acute, rapidly spreading infection within the connective tissues that is characterized by malaise, swelling, warmth, and red streaks. Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness that is often the first indication of an infection or other disease.

chloasma

also known as melasma or the mask of pregnancy, is a pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face. This can occur during pregnancy, especially among women with dark hair and fair skin, and usually disappears after delivery.

cicatrix

is a normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound (plural, cicatrices).

comedo

is a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle

debridement

is the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing.

dermatitis

means an inflammation of the skin

diaphoresis

is profuse sweating

dysplastic nevi

are atypical moles that can develop into skin
cancer.

ecchymosis

also known as a bruise, is a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin

eczema

is a form of persistent or recurring dermatitis that is usually characterized by redness, itching, and dryness, with possible blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding.

erythema

is redness of the skin due to capillary dilation

erythroderma

is abnormal redness of the entire skin surface

exfoliative dermatitis

is a condition in which there is
widespread scaling of the skin, often with
pruritus, erythroderma, and hair loss. It may occur
in severe cases of many common skin
conditions, include eczema, psoriasis, and
allergic reactions.

folliculitis

is an inflammation of the hair follicles

furuncles

also known as boils, are large, tender, swollen areas caused by a staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands.

granuloma

is a general term used to describe small, knot-like swellings of granulation tissue in the epidermis

hematoma

which is usually caused by an injury, is a swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues

hirsutism

is the presence of excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern

ichthyosis

is a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened, and scaly skin

impetigo

is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection that commonly occurs in children. This condition is characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture.

keloid

is an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the incision

keratosis

is any skin growth, such as a wart or a callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the skin

koilonychia

also known as spoon nail, is a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon

lipedema

also known as painful fat syndrome, is a chronic abnormal condition that is characterized by the accumulation of fat and fluid in the tissues just under the skin of the hips and legs

lipoma

is a benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer

lupus erythematosus

also known as lupus, is an autoimmune disorder
characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and
upper trunk. In addition to the skin, this condition
also attacks the connective tissue in other body
systems, especially in the joints.

macule

also known as a macula, is a
discolored, flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter. Freckles, or flat moles, are examples of macules

malignant melanoma

also known as melanoma, is a type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes

miliaria

also known as heat rash and prickly heat, is an intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells. Caution: Do not confuse this condition with the infectious disease malaria.

necrotizing fasciitis

is a severe infection caused by Group A strep bacteria

onychocryptosis

is commonly known an ingrown toenail

onychomycosis

is a fungal infection of the nail

papilloma

is a benign, superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body, such as in the bladder

papule

is a small, raised red lesion that is
less than 0.5 cm in diameter and does not contain pus. Small pimples and insect bites are types of papules

paronychia

is an acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail

pediculosis

is an infestation with lice

petechiae

are very small, pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2 mm in diameter (singular, petechia). These hemorrhages sometimes result from high fevers.

pruritus

also known as itching, is associated with most forms of dermatitis

psoriasis

is a common skin disorder
characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, or buttocks

purpura

is the appearance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin

purulent

means producing or containing pus.

rhytidectomy

also known as a facelift, is the surgical removal of excess skin and fat around the face to eliminate wrinkles

rosacea

which is also known as
adult acne, is characterized by tiny red pimples and
broken blood vessels. This chronic condition of
unknown cause usually develops individuals with fair
skin, between 30 and 60 years of ages.

scabies

is a skin infection caused by an
infestation with the itch mite, which causes small,
itchy bumps and blisters due to tiny mites that burrow into the top layer of human skin to lay their eggs. Medications applied to the skin kill the mites;
however, itching may persist for several weeks.

scleroderma

is an autoimmune disorder in which the connective tissues become thickened and hardened, causing the skin to become hard and swollen

seborrhea

is overactivity of the sebaceous glands that results in the production of an excessive amount of sebum

squamous cell carcinoma

originates as a malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium; however, it can quickly spread to other body systems. These cancers begin as skin lesions that appear to be sores that will not heal or that have a crusted look

strawberry hemangioma

a soft, raised, dark-reddish-purple birthmark (hem
means blood

tinea

is a fungal infection that can grow on
the skin, hair, or nails. This condition is also known as ringworm,

urticaria

also known as hives, are itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction

verrucae

also known as warts, are
small, hard skin lesions caused by the human
papilloma virus

vitiligo

is a skin condition resulting from the destruction of the melanocytes due to unknown causes.

wheal

also known as a welt, is a small bump that itches. Wheals can appear as a symptom of an allergic reaction

xeroderma

also known as xerosis, is excessively dry skin

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