The civilian employees of the national government who are responsible for implementing federal laws.
The expansion of the patronage system to a level of corruption that placed political cronies into all levels of government
The system that classifies federal civil service jobs into grades to which appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive exams.
A complex system of organization and control that incorporates the principles of hierarchical authority, division of labor, and formalized rules.
Civil Service System
The merit-based employment system that covers most white-collar and specialist positions in the federal government.
The administrative process that creates rules that have the characteristics of a law.
A publication of the federal government used to announce public notice of the time, place, and nature of the proceedings to be followed when new agency rules are proposed.
The 15 major administrative organizations within the federal bureaucracy that are responsible for major governmental functions such as defense, commerce, and homeland security.
An administrative organization that is directly accountable to the president.
Independent Executive Agency
A governmental unit with special responsibilities that is not part of any cabinet department.
Independent Regulator Agency
An agency existing outside the major departments that regulates a specific economic activity or interest.
The practice whereby individuals in the bureaucracy bring public attention to gross inefficiency or corruption in the government.