SOC101 Merritt Final Exam

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Emile Durkheim

-(1855-1917) believed social bonds/functions hold society together through social interaction.
-Society is held together by mechanical solidarity (a social/moral consensus) and by organic solidarity (a dependency of roles among people).
-tradition, values, laws, religion, ideology and population density.

Karl Marx

-Capitalism unfair, takes advantage of working class to maximize profit, and the entire system rests on the workers getting less than they give.
-Bourgeoisie: capitalist / Proletariat: working class
-workers sell their labor in exchange for wages, and capitalists make certain that wages are worth less than the goods the workers produce.

Max Weber

-(1854-1920) Verstehen: understanding social behavior from the point of view of those engaged in it.
-society is multidimensional (political, economic, cultural)
-Religion powerful in creating economic system.
-Rationality more pervasive through development of bureaucratic structures.

Auguste Comte

-(1798-1857) Coined "sociology"
-Positivism: path to understanding the world based on science
-believed that you need to understand society as it was, rather than what ought to be.
-learn through observation.

Herbert Spencer

-(1882) believed that as societies move through history,they become more complex.
-societies moved from homogeneity (like characteristics) to heterogeneity (dissimilar or unrelated parts)

Edwin Sutherland

-(1883-1950) considered as one of the most influential criminologists of the twentieth century.
Differential Association Theorist: general theory of crime and delinquency that explains how deviants come to learn the motivations and the technical knowledge for deviant or criminal activity.

George Ritzer

-Consumption theorist, globalization theorist, metatheorist,and studied modern and postmodern social theory.
-Coined the term McDonaldization.

Symbolic Interactionism

-places emphasis on micro-scale social interaction, which is particularly important in subfields such as urban sociology and social psychology.
-derived from American pragmatism, especially the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Cooley

Conflict Theory (General)

-Society is created from ongoing conflict (Karl Marx)
-are there class inequalities?
-are there race inequalities?
-are there gender inequalities?
-does it support capitalism?

Functionalism / Order Theory (General)

-Focuses on what brings people together (order theory, Emile Durkheim)
-What value does it support?
-what jobs does it create?
-does it bring people closer together and how?
-does it create moral boundaries?"

The Looking Glass Self (Cooley)

(Herbert Cooley) also known as Dramaturgical Analysis; when we change our behavior depending on who we interact with.

Labeling Theory

-(Howard Becker): a branch of symbolic interaction theory, interprets the response of others as the most significant factor in understanding how deviant behavior is both created and sustained.

Differential Association

-(Edwin Sutherland) is a general theory of crime and delinquency that explains how deviants come to learn the motivations and the technical knowledge for deviant or criminal activity.

Social Darwinism

-term used for various late nineteenth century ideologies predicated on the idea of survival of the fittest.
defined as a theory of social evolution which asserts that there are underlying, and largely irresistible, forces acting in societies which are like the natural forces that operate in animal and plant communities.
-refers to notions of struggle for existence being used to justify social policies which make no distinction between those able to support themselves and those unable to support themselves.

Protestant Ethic

-(Max Weber) Protestant faith supported the development of capitalism. Leads not only to salvation, but also to the accumulation of capital.
-based upon the notion that the Calvinist emphasis on the necessity for hard work as a component of a person's calling and worldly success and as a visible sign or result (not a cause) of personal salvation.

3 Major Economic Shifts

-Agricultural
-Industrial
-Postindustrial (Services)

Capitalism

-an economic system structured upon the accumulation of capital in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit, usually in competitive markets. Owners get to keep the surplus of what is generated. (profit and wages)

Socialism

-economic institution characterized by state ownership and management of the basic industries; that is, the means of production are the property of the state not of individuals.

Bureaucracy

-system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials.
-organizational structure characterized by adherence to standardized procedure.

Iron Cage of Bureaucracy

-(Max Weber) refers to the increased rationalization inherent in social life, particularly in Western capitalist societies. The "iron cage" thus traps individuals in systems based purely on teleological efficiency, rational calculation and control.
-a technically ordered, rigid, dehumanized society.
-set of rules and laws that we are all subjected and must adhere to.
-limits individual human freedom and potential instead of a "technological utopia" that should set us free.
-It's the way of the institution, where we do not have a choice anymore.

Types of Authority

-Traditional Authority: stems from long-established patterns that give people or groups legitimate power (monarchy)
-Legal Rational: stems from rule and regulations, typically written down as laws,procedures, code of conduct. Most common in the U.S. (elected officials)
-Charismatic Authority: derived from personal appeal of a leader. (cult leader, president Obama can be considered this)

Hidden Curriculum

-the formal and often subtle messages about social roles that are conveyed through classroom interaction and classroom materials--roles that are clearly linked to gender, race, and class.

Sacred

-that which is set apart from ordinary activity for worship, seen as holy, and protected by special rites and rituals.

Profane

-is of the everyday world and specifically not religious.

8 Steps of Research Process

-Identify problem
-define scope
-review the literature
-hypothesis
-select a research method
-sampling
-analyzing results
-publishing

Formal Social Control

-institutionalized attempts to punish or neutralize organizations or individuals who deviate from society's norms.

Informal Social Control

-shaming or stigmatization by close interpersonal relationships.

Deviance

-behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms.

Independent Variable

-the cause

Dependent Variable

-the effect; has reliability (consistency in measurement) and validity (measuring what you intend to measure).

Instrumental Role

-men hunt and economically provide for family.

Expressive Role

-women do the domestic work and child-rearing.

Institutional Racism

-continued exclusion of a subordinate group and activities which are intended to protect the advantages of the dominant group and/or maintain or widen the unequal position of a subordinated group. Majority group is slow to recognize or do anything because of traditions. (More harmful because it has overreaching effects, e.g., paying blacks less than whites)

Individual Racism

-overt acts by individuals that harm other individuals or their property.

Self-fulfilling Prophecy

- a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.

Definition of Deviance (V+SC=D)

-Violence + Social Control = Deviance

McDonaldization

-refers to the increasing and ubiquitous presence of the fast-food MODEL in most organizations that shape daily life (work, travel, leisure, shopping, healthcare, politics, education.)

Elements of McDonaldization

-Efficiency
-Calculability
-Predictability
-Control

Manifest Consequence

-Conscious and intended consequence (reducing crime). Deliberate.

Latent Consequence

-Unconscious and Unintended consequence (it gives the non-deviants a sense of solidarity by reasserting the importance of the rule being violated and reaffirms their commitments to the rule.

Institution

-established and organized system of social behavior with a recognized purpose.

Mechanical Solidarity

-homogeneous division of labor; based on similarity, ,shared values and consensus; high conformity.

Organic Solidarity

-heterogeneous division of labor; based on inter-dependency.

Environmental Racism

-any policy or practice that differentially affects or disadvantages individuals (e.g.,hazardous waste dumping).

Institutional Racism

-the negative treatment and oppression of one racial or ethnic group by society's existing institutions based on the presumed inferiority of the oppressed group. (More harmful because it has overreaching effects, e.g., paying blacks less than whites)

Piven & Cloward's (aid to poor)

-overloading the U.S. public welfare system in order to precipitate a crisis that would lead to a replacement of the welfare system with a national system of "a guaranteed annual income and thus an end to poverty".

Values

-abstract standards in a society or group that define ideal principles.
-define what is desirable and morally correct.

Roles

-Behaviors or norms attached to a specific status.

Norms

-Folkways: minor violations
-Mores: violations which result in severe punishment, involves morality and moral imperatives.
-Laws: violations that result in criminal justice sanctions.

Achieved Status

-voluntary status, it has been earned; e.g. lawyer

Ascribed Status

- involuntary status, by birth; e.g. son, daughter

Master Status

-status that has exceptional significance for social identity.

Primary Group

-intimately involved with each other, informal in organization and is long lasting.

Secondary Group

-are much larger and impersonal. Formally organized, task oriented and relatively non-permanent.

Solidarity

-refers to the ties in a society - social relations - that bind people to one another

Symbols

-things or behaviors to which people give meaning.
-the meaning is not inherent in this, but is bestowed by the meaning people give it.

Ethnocentrism

-the belief that one's group is superior to all other groups.

Cultural Relativism

-the principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture.

Ethnicity

-shared cultural heritage.

Race

-shared biologically transmitted traits.

Gender Roles

-social constructions that assign self-concepts, family, occupational and political roles differentially to males and females.

Patriarchy

- is a social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege, and is dependent on female subordination.

Matriarchy

-society in which females, especially mothers, have the central roles of political leadership and moral authority.

Stigmatization

-severe social disapproval of or personal discontent with a person on the grounds of their unique characteristics distinguishing them from others in society.
-is based on a person differing from social or cultural norms.

Stigma

-an attitude that is socially devalued or discredited.

Differentiation

-process of categorizing persons based on age, height or occupation.

Stratification

-system of structured social inequality.
-ranking people in a way that differentiates them as superior or inferior.

Recidivism

-re-involvement in crime

Free Enterprise

-an economic and political doctrine holding that a capitalist economy can regulate itself in a freely competitive market through the relationship of supply and demand with a minimum of governmental intervention and regulation.

Civil Religion

-the moral and spiritual foundation essential for any modern society.
-social cement, helping to unify the state by providing it with sacred authority.

False Consciousness

-the class consciousness of subordinate classes who internalize the view of the dominant class.
-a result of ideological control which the proletariat either do not know they are under or which they disregard with a view to their own possibility of upward mobility).

Sanctions

-mechanisms of social control that enforce norms.

Collective Consciousness

-The body of beliefs common to a community or society that gives people a sense of belonging and a feeling of moral obligation to its demands and values.

Class Consciousness

-shared identification with others in one's social class (those who you share life chances)

Monogamy

-one male spouse and one female spouse.

Polygamy

-one man and many wives.

Polygyny

-the practice or condition of having more than one wife at one time.

Polyandry

-one wife, several husbands.

Tracking (and its effects)

-practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria (ability grouping).
-students in higher tracks receive positive effects, students in lower tracks suffer negative effects.
-students in lower tracks learn less because they are taught less, read less, do less homework.
-high track is taught more and are consistently rewarded by teachers.

Rituals

-symbolic activities that express a group's spiritual convictions. (making a pilgrimage to mecca)

Power

-ability to control others against their will.

Authority

-institutionalized power that is legitimated.

Family

-Primary group of people--usually related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption--who form a cooperative economic unit to care for offspring and each other and who are committed to maintaining the group over time.

Endogamy

-choosing spouse that is your race, ethnicity, religion and social class.

Exogamy

-also called out-marriage, custom enjoining marriage outside one's own group, e.g., interracial marriage.

Ecclesia

-religious organization that claims to include more or all members of a society and is recognized as the national religion. Member is by birth, i.e., Islam, Catholic, etc.

Dysfunction

-negative functions resulting from problems of ritualization and alienation of the person from the organization; has the consequence of contributing to the disunity, lack of harmony and less efficiency in the bureaucracy.

Credentialism

- a primary reliance on credentials for purposes of conferring jobs or social status.
-requiring a diploma, academic degree, security clearance, or professional license for a job.

Title IX

-forbids gender discrimination in any educational institution receiving federal funds.
-Prohibits colleges and universities from receiving federal funds if the discriminate against women in any program, including athletics.

Monopoly

-Single business controls a commodity by dictating pricing, quality standards and availability. Buyers have little choice but to yield to the firm's decisions; there is no other place to purchase the product or service.

Positivism

-system of thought, in which scientific observation and description is considered the highest form of knowledge, as opposed to, say, religious dogma or poetic inspiration.

Deindustrialization

transition from a predominantly good-producing economy to one based on the provision of services.

Terrorism

-premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by persons or groups who use their action to try to achieve their political ends.

Culture

Shared beliefs of a group in society that unites members and guides their behaviors; customs, knowledge, material objects and behavior.
-also includes the ideas, values and artifacts of groups of people. Culture is learned, culture is symbolic, culture is taken for granted, ,culture is shared.

Homogeneous

-composed of parts or elements that are all of the same kind.

Heterogeneous

-different in kind; unlike.

Sexism

-a belief system that tries to explain and justify the status quo and a set of institutional practices through which women are given less power and worth.

Glass Ceiling

-invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender.

Marital Power

-the amount of money a person earns establishes that person's relative power within the marriage, including the ability to influence decisions.

Meritocracy

-stratification system that allows people to rise and fall to a position that matches their talent and effort. (Myth)

Opiate of the Masses

-A False consciousness.
-religion is an illusion created by the Capitalists to keep the working class oppressed as they look for salvation in the afterlife, rather than liberation in the work life.
-religion impedes social change by encouraging oppressed people to focus on otherworldly concerns rather than on their immediate poverty and exploitation.
-religion lessens the possibility of collective political action that could end capitalist oppression and transform society.
-Religion offers people a consolation for their harsh lives on earth-the hope of eternal salvation and an ideal afterlife.

Issues Affecting Schools Today

-segregation (discrimination); most urban schools are predominantly minority.
-racial bias in standardized tests.
-funding is disproportionate between suburban and urban schools due to taxes on property value.
-economics; student dropout due to low-income families. Having to work to support family.

Problems in the Family

-Divorce
-Partner violence
-Child abuse
-Incest
-Elder abuse

Scapegoating of Immigrants

-e.g.: a white person being denied a job blaming, say, Mexicans because there are too many being permitted to enter the country.

Healthcare in America

-unequal distribution of health care by race-ethnicity, social class, or gender.
-unequal distribution of health care by region. Urban people have more access vice rural areas.
-inadequate health education of inner-city and rural parents; inner city and rural parents do not understand the importance of immunization.

Divorce in America

-U.S. leads the world in the number of people who divorce.
-more likely among the young.
-higher among low-income couples.
-higher among blacks, than whites.
-more likely among Asian American born, then Asian immigrants.
-rate of divorce is effected by changing role in women. They are less dependent on men.

Medicalization of Society

-increasing number of human problems coming into the jurisdiction of the medical profession
-e.g.: viewing alcoholism solely from a medical perspective ignores the social causes that influence the development and persistence of this behavior.

Effects of Corporate Downsizing

-low morale and productivity in employees not laid off.
-job insecurity, stress, negative attitudes in employees not laid off.
-role ambiguity and role overload.
-less loyalty to and from the company.
-working more hours due to more competition between employees in order to keep their jobs.
-unemployment numbers increase.
-the laid off tend to resort to lower paying jobs.
-scapegoating the poor, minorities, immigrants, etc.

Social causes of death and illness

-risky health behaviors (smoking, eating unhealthy, drinking, drugs)
-inadequate access to health care.
-poor nutrition, housing conditions, work environment.
-negative social interaction (discrimination) leads to stress, which in turn affects immune function, cardiovascular activity, and progression of existing disease.

Combinations of Family

-divorce and remarriage
-adoption
-foster parenting
-single parent
-kinship care
-same sex partnership

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