Neurology, Psychology, Anesthesiology, and Vascular Terminology

268 terms by christinamedina 

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Medical Terminology 1, Unit 8

neur/o

nerve or neuron

angi/o

vessel

my/o

muscle

ateri/o

artery

thromb/o

blood clot

phleb/o

vein

hem/o or hemat/o

blood

ather/o

fatty or porridgelike

ven/i

vein

blast/o

germ or embryonic cell; gives rise to something else

spasm/o

involuntary contraction

scler/o

hard

lys/o

break down, destruction

fibr/o

fibrous, fiber

-rrhexis

rupture

-ectasia

dilation or stretching

nervous

adjective meaning pertaining to nerves

neurology

study of the nervous system

neurosurgeon

highly skilled physician specially trained to perform surgery on structures of the nervous system

neuroblast

germ cell from which a nerve cell develops

myoblast

an embryonic germ cell from which a muscle cell develops

angioblast

germ cell from which vessels develop

myospasm

spasme of a muscle

neurospasm

spasm of a nerve

angiospasm

spasm of a vessel

arteriospasm

arterial spasm

gastrospasm

gastric spasm-stomach

gastromalacia

softening of the stomach walls

angiopathy

any disease of the vessels

myopathy

any disease of the muscle

neuropathy

any disease of the nerves

angiosclerosis

condition of hardening of a vessel

neurosclerosis

condition of hardening of the nerve tissue

myosclerosis

hardening of the muscle tissue

neurologist

specialist who studies nervous system disorders

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve

neuroma

nerve tumor

myoma

muscle tumor

angioma

vessel tumor

fibroma

fibrous tumor

neurolysis

destruction of nerve tissue

myolysis

destruction of muscle tissue

angiolysis

destruction or breaking down vessels

neuralgia

pain along the course of nerve

neuroarthropathy

disease of nerves and joints

neuroplasty

surgical repair of nerves

afferent

inflowing, toward a center, to bring to

efferent

outlfowing, away from a center, to carry away

affect

to have influence upon, ie: to change mood, thoughts or actions

effect

the result of consequence of an action

accept

include, bring toward, embrace

except

exclude, keep away, reject

affusion

pouring upon, ie: pouring of water upon the body for therapeutic purposes

effusion

the escaping of fluid or blood from its normal palce, ie: blood from vessels into the lungs or a joint cavity

neurotripsy

surgical crusing of a nerve

-tripsy

Greek word, tripsis, meaning rubbing or massage

lithotripsy

surgical crushing of stones

ultrasonic lithrotripsy

therapeutic ultrasound that is used to fragment stones

myel

spinal cord or bone marrow

myelitis

inflammation of the spinal cord or bone marrow

myeloblast

bone marrow germ cell

myelocytic

pertaining to myelocytes (bone marrow or spinal cord cell)

myelocele

herniation of the spinal cord

-plasia

condition of growth or development

dysplasia

poor or defective development

hyperplasia

overgrowth, too much growth

aplasia

lack of development, failure of an organ to develop properly

myelodysplasia

defective (poor or bad) formation of the spinal cord

hyperplasia

overgrowth or too many cells

hypoplasia

underdevelopment or not enough cells

chondrodysplasia

defective formation of cartilage

osteochondrodysplasia

defective formation of the bone and cartilage

neuromyelitis

inflammation of nerves and spinal cord

psych/o

mind

psychology

study of the mind, mental processes, and human behavior

psychoanalysis

a method of analyzing psychic phenomena and treating mental and emotional disorders that is based on the concepts and theories of Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of free association and dream analysis, and that involves treatment sessions during which the patient is encouraged to talk freely about personal experiences and especially about early childhood and dreams

psychosomatic

Relating to both the mind and the body or to the mind-body interrelationships

psychosexual

mental disorder related to sexual function

psychiatrist

physician who specializes in study and deals with mental and neurotic disorders

psychiatry

treatment of mental disorders

psychology

science of that studies human behavior

psychotherapy

process of healing mental disorders using words, art, drama, or movement to express feelings

psychosis

a severe mental condtion marked by loss of contact with reality and having delusions or hallucinations

psychogenesis

formation of mental characteristics

psychoneurosis

emotional and behavioral disorder, is manifested by anxiety, phobias, and defense mechanisms

OCD

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

psychotropic

medications may be used to alter mind, emotions or behavior

psychomotor

mental processes that cause movement

psychoneuroses

obsessive-compulsive reaction, conversion reaction and phobias

motor neuron

neuron that innervates a muscle causes movement

pharmac/o

pharmacy

psychopharmacology

study of drugs that act on the mind and emotions

neuropharmacology

study of drugs that affect the nervous system

pharmacology

study of prescription and nonprescription medications

narcotic

drug that produces sleep

ie: Opium, Codeine, Morphine

narc/o

stuporous sleep

Antidepressant

Prozac

tranquilizers

Thorazine

neuroleptics, sedatives and anticonvulsants

Dilantin

narcosis

condition induced by narcotics

epilepsy

seizures

ie: petit mal (French: small bad)
grand mal (French: large bad)

narcolepsy

seizure of attacks of sleep/ sleep disorder

ie: Cerebroma, cerebral arteriosclerosis, and paresis

-lepsy

seizure

lipolysis

destruction (breakdown) of fat

cytolysis

destruction (breakdown) of cells

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

arteriofibrosis

fibrous condition of the arteries

arteriomalacia

softening of the arteries

atherosclerosis

hardening of the blood vessels caused by fatty or porridgelike substance

myocardial infarction

heart attack

cerebral infarction

stroke- artery supplying the cerebrum is closed or blocked

ischemia

A blood defienciency in an organ or tissue caused by a constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels

necrosis

A pathalogical process caused by the progressive degradative action of enzymes that is generally associated with severe cellular trauma. It is characterized by mitochondrial swelling, nuclear flocculation, uncontrolled cell lysis, and ultimately CELL DEATH.

atherectomy

removal of an fatty tumor

atheroma

fatty tumor from a fatty streak

endarterectomy

removal of an atheroma. This procedure is most commonly performed on the carotid artery

angina pectoris

symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARIDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION

hemangioblast

embryonic blood vessel

hemangioma

benign tumor of blood vessel

hemarthrosis

condition of blood in a joint

hematolysis

destruction of blood cells

hematophobia

abnormal fear of blood

hematology

study of blood

hematologist

one who specializes in the science of blood

hemoglobin (hgb) blood lab test

measured to detect anemia. The red protein substance in erythrocytes that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide

hematocrit (hct) blood test

measures the percent of formed elements(blood cells) compared to the total volume of blood

thromboangiitis

inflammation of a vessel with formation of a blood clot

thrombectomy

removal of a blood clot

lymph/o

lymphatic tissue

thrombolymphangitis

inflammation of a lymph vessel with formation of a blood clot

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein with thrombus formation

thrombosis

condition of forming a thrombus (blood clot)

thrombocyte

cell that aids clotting

thromboid

resembling a thrombus (blood clot)

thrombogenic

pertaining to the formation of a thrombus (blood clot)

thrombolysis

destruction of a thrombus (blood clot)

thrombocytopenia

lack of cells that aid clotting (platelets)

occlusion

to close or block

infarct

An obstruction or embolus in one of the blood vessels

myocardial

heart muscle

embolus

thrombus or piece of a moving thrombus may move throught blood vessels to another part of the body

MI

myocardial infarction

CVA

cerebrovascular accident (stroke)

arteries

are vessels that carry blood away from the heart

veins

are vessels that carry blood back to the heart

phlebectomy

removal of a vein

phlebosclerosis

hardening of the veins

phlebopexy

surgical fixation of a vein

phlebectasia

venous dilatation (stretching)

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