← Ch. 23 Chemistry of LIfe - vocab Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All denaturation process in which a protein's natural three- dimensional structure is disrupted protein a molecule that is made from a possible set of 20 amino acids, needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body. peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid amino acid organic molecule that has an amino functional group and a carboxyl functional group peptide any molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds polysaccharide a large carbohydrate made from 12 or more monomers carbohydrate a class of energy-giving nutrients that includes sugar, starches, and fiber, contains multiple hydroxyl groups as well as an aldehyde or ketone functional group disaccharide 2 monomers linked together by a condensation reaction eg. sucrose monosaccharide a simple sugar unit fatty acid long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end lipid a large, nonpolar organic molecule, including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes phospholipid a triglyceride in which one of the fatty acids is replaced by a polar phosphate group giving it a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail saponification reaction in which sodium hydroxide is used to hydrolyze the ester bonds of a triglyceride steroid a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached includes hormones triglyceride a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol backbone wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain catabolism breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy metabolism complete set of energy involved reactions carried out by an organism anabolism synthesis of more complex substances from simpler ones ATP nucleotide that functions as the universal usable energy form in living cells nucleotide monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base fermentation the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen uracil a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine thymine one of the four aromatic bases found in DNA. Thymine is a pyrimidine; it pairs with adenine.