Module 3: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids and Bases

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Which of the following is the largest fluid compartment in the body?

A) Intracellular
B) Interstitial
C) Intravascular
D) Peritoneal

A) Intracellular

Osmosis describes the movement of:

A) sodium.
B) glucose.
C) water.
D) all molecules.

C) water.

Which of the following processes describes the mechanism underlying the sodium-potassium pump?

A) Passive diffusion
B) Active transport
C) Facilitated diffusion
D) Osmosis

B) Active transport

Passive mediated transport (facilitated diffusion) depends on the presence of:

A) carrier proteins in the plasma membrane.
B) energy in the form of ATP.
C) microtubules in the cytoplasm.
D) all of the above.

A) carrier proteins in the plasma membrane.

Active mediated transport is used to transport molecules:

A) between organelles in the cytoplasm.
B) in the blood stream.
C) in the interstitial fluid.
D) across a membrane.

D) across a membrane.

Factors that determine osmotic pressure include all of the following except:

A) charge of the molecules.
B) size of the molecules.
C) concentration gradient.
D) thickness of the plasma membrane.

A) charge of the molecules.

Which of the following electrolytes is found in the highest concentration in the intracellular fluid (ICF)?

A) Sodium
B) Calcium
C) Potassium
D) Chlorine

C) Potassium

Osmolarity measures:

A) the number of dissolved molecules per kilogram of water.
B) the concentration of solute per volume of solution.
C) the partial pressure of the gases dissolved in a solution.
D) the permeability of a cellular membrane to solutes.

B) the concentration of solute per volume of solution.

How are ions such as sodium and potassium transported in and out of the cell across the plasma membrane?

A) Via the process of endocytosis and exocytosis
B) Through small pores in the lipid bilayer
C) By glycolipid carrier molecules
D) Through leak and gated protein channels

D) Through leak and gated protein channels

When sodium channels in the plasma membrane of a neuron open, which of the following processes is initiated?

A) Inhibition
B) Depolarization
C) Repolarization
D) Hyperpolarization

B) Depolarization

To generate an action potential, a nerve cell must reach:

A) resting membrane potential.
B) threshold potential.
C) hypopolarization.
D) 0 mV.

B) threshold potential.

If intercellular potassium is depleted, what state best describes the altered membrane potential of the cell?

A) Hyperexcitable
B) Hypersensitive
C) Hyperpolarized
D) Hyperbolical

C) Hyperpolarized

Plasma oncotic (colloid osmotic) pressure is maintained by the quantity of plasma:

A) glucose.
B) sodium.
C) proteins.
D) lipids.

C) proteins.

Which of the following spaces does not belong to the water compartment of the body?

A) Vascular
B) Flesh
C) Intracellular
D) Interstitial

B) Flesh

What fraction of total body water (TBW) volume is contained in the intracellular space?

A) 3/4
B) 2/3
C) 1/2
D) 1/3

B) 2/3

Total body water (TBW) in elderly persons is:

A) increased because of decreased adipose tissue and decreased bone mass.
B) increased because of decreased renal function and hormonal fluctuations.
C) decreased because of increased adipose tissue and decreased muscle mass.
D) decreased because of diuresis and sodium loss.

C) decreased because of increased adipose tissue and decreased muscle mass.

Which state describes the ideal proportion of electrolyte-to-water content in the body?

A) Homeostatic
B) Osmotic
C) Cationic
D) Isotonic

D) Isotonic

Osmosis describes the movement of:

A) electrolytes.
B) glucose.
C) water.
D) blood.

C) water.

Which of the following electrolytes is found in the highest concentrations in the intracellular fluid (ICF)?

A) Sodium
B) Calcium
C) Magnesium
D) Potassium

D) Potassium

The inward-pulling force of particles in the vascular fluid is called the:

A) capillary hydrostatic pressure.
B) interstitial osmotic pressure.
C) capillary oncotic pressure.
D) interstitial hydrostatic pressure.

C) capillary oncotic pressure.

Capillary oncotic pressure is primarily determined by which of the following molecules?

A) Glucose
B) Sodium
C) Albumin
D) Water

C) Albumin

Starling's hypothesis describes the forces that determine:

A) the intercellular concentration of electrolytes.
B) the net filtration of water at the capillary membrane.
C) the exchange of gases at the capillary membrane.
D) the concentration of albumin in the interstitial fluid.

B) the net filtration of water at the capillary membrane.

Which of the following problems results in increased capillary hydrostatic pressure and the formation of edema?

A) Renal failure
B) Hemorrhaging
C) Liver failure
D) All of the above

A) Renal failure

Edema can result from all of the following alterations except:

A) decreased capillary hydrostatic pressure.
B) decreased capillary oncotic pressure.
C) lymphatic obstruction.
D) increased capillary membrane permeability.

A) decreased capillary hydrostatic pressure.

Edema that occurs in the feet and legs when standing or around the sacrum and buttocks while lying down is called:

A) pitting edema.
B) generalized edema.
C) an effusion.
D) dependent edema.

D) dependent edema.

An increase in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion will result in which of the following changes?

A) Increased serum sodium concentrations
B) Decreased serum sodium concentrations
C) Increased serum potassium concentrations
D) Decreased serum potassium concentrations

B) Decreased serum sodium concentrations

Which of the following hormones stimulates sodium excretion by the kidneys?

A) Cortisol
B) Aldosterone
C) Natriuretic hormones
D) Antidiuretic hormone

C) Natriuretic hormones

Increased aldosterone, as in the case of hyperaldosteronism, results in:

A) decreased serum osmolarity.
B) renal retention of sodium and water.
C) increased sodium excretion coupled with retention of potassium.
D) increased water reabsorption without affecting sodium balance.

B) renal retention of sodium and water.

Which of the following molecules inversely varies its concentration with chloride (Cl-) in the plasma?

A) Phosphate
B) Sodium
C) Potassium
D) Bicarbonate

D) Bicarbonate

Symptoms of dehydration include:

A) decreased urine output.
B) increased skin turgor.
C) increased blood pressure.
D) edema.

A) decreased urine output.

Which of the following conditions can result in a pure water deficit (hypertonic dehydration)?

A) Hyperventilation caused by fever
B) Inability to concentrate the urine
C) Coma
D) All of the above

D) All of the above

Hypernatremia can result from:

A) decreased aldosterone secretion.
B) decreased antidiuretic hormone secretion.
C) compulsive water drinking.
D) excessive dietary potassium.

B) decreased antidiuretic hormone secretion.

Effects of hypernatremia on the central nervous system include:

A) confusion.
B) irritability.
C) insomnia.
D) depression.

A) confusion.

Which of the following groups of symptoms are caused by hyponatremia?

A) Weak pulses, low blood pressure, and increased heart rate
B) Thirst, dry mucous membranes, and diarrhea
C) Nausea, muscle cramps, and confusion
D) Cardiac arrhythmias, paresthesias, and acid-base imbalances

C) Nausea, muscle cramps, and confusion

Signs and symptoms of hypervolemia (fluid overload) include all of the following except:

A) elevated blood pressure.
B) weight gain.
C) edema.
D) increased hematocrit.

D) increased hematocrit.

Which of the following electrolyte imbalances often occurs as a result of acute acidosis?

A) Hypernatremia
B) Hyponatremia
C) Hyperkalemia
D) Hypokalemia

C) Hyperkalemia

Which of the following electrolyte disturbances occurs with renal failure?

A) Hypernatremia
B) Hyperkalemia
C) Hypokalemia
D) Hypophosphatemia

B) Hyperkalemia

Which of the following conditions are known causes of hypokalemia?

A) Diuresis
B) Diarrhea
C) Insulin administration
D) All of the above

D) All of the above

Moderate to severe hypokalemia manifests with:

A) muscle spasms and rapid respirations.
B) muscle weakness and cardiac dysrhythmias.
C) confusion and irritability.
D) vomiting and diarrhea.

B) muscle weakness and cardiac dysrhythmias.

Which of the following electrolyte disturbances is manifested by muscle spasms?

A) Hypercalcemia
B) Hypocalcemia
C) Hyperphosphatemia
D) Hypophosphatemia

B) Hypocalcemia

Which of the following electrolyte disturbances results from excess use of antacids such as calcium carbonate?

A) Hyperkalemia
B) Hypokalemia
C) Hyperphosphatemia
D) Hypophosphatemia

D) Hypophosphatemia

Which of the following molecules act as buffers for acid in the blood?

A) Hemoglobin
B) Albumin
C) Bicarbonate ion
D) All of the above

D) All of the above

What is the normal pH of the blood?

A) Neutral
B) Slightly acidic
C) Slightly alkaline
D) Very acidic

C) Slightly alkaline

Which of the following molecules is a volatile acid in the body?

A) Lactic acid
B) Ketoacids
C) Carbon dioxide
D) Sulfates

C) Carbon dioxide

A common cause of metabolic acidosis is:

A) diuresis.
B) dehydration.
C) vomiting.
D) renal failure.

D) renal failure.

Early symptoms of metabolic acidosis include:

A) coma.
B) headache and lethargy.
C) muscle cramps.
D) short and shallow respirations.

B) headache and lethargy.

If an individual has a fully compensated metabolic acidosis, the person's pH is:

A) high.
B) low.
C) normal.
D) impossible to determine.

C) normal.

Compensation for metabolic acidosis and alkalosis is accomplished by which of the following organs?

A) Liver
B) Skin
C) Heart
D) Lungs

D) Lungs

A common cause of metabolic alkalosis is:

A) volume overload.
B) hyperventilation.
C) vomiting.
D) ketone production.

C) vomiting.

Which of the following series of laboratory values reflects a state of uncompensated metabolic alkalosis?

A) Increased pH, increased bicarbonate
B) Increased pH, decreased bicarbonate
C) Decreased pH, increased bicarbonate
D) Decreased pH, decreased bicarbonate

A) Increased pH, increased bicarbonate

In general, respiratory acidosis is caused by:

A) states that induce hyperventilation.
B) compensation for metabolic alkalosis.
C) respiratory disease causing retention of carbon dioxide.
D) hormone imbalances.

C) respiratory disease causing retention of carbon dioxide.

Which of the following alterations is evidence that the kidneys are compensating for a respiratory acidosis condition?

A) Decreased carbon dioxide
B) Elevated carbon dioxide
C) Decreased bicarbonate ion
D) Elevated bicarbonate ion

D) Elevated bicarbonate ion

Respiratory alkalosis is caused by:

A) hyperventilation.
B) pneumonia.
C) pulmonary congestion.
D) pulmonary edema.

A) hyperventilation.

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