Module 8: Alterations of Neurologic Function

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Which of the following is a structure that carries the nervous impulse away from the neuron cell body?

A) Ganglion
B) Dendrite
C) Microtubule
D) Axon

D) Axon

Which cells are responsible for forming the blood-brain barrier?

A) Neurons
B) Microglia
C) Astrocytes
D) Schwann cells

C) Astrocytes

Which of the following substances is released at a synapse?

A) Hormones
B) Myelin
C) Sodium and potassium
D) Neurotransmitters

D) Neurotransmitters

The primary motor and sensory areas of the brain are located in the:

A) brain stem.
B) cerebral cortex.
C) diencephalon.
D) cerebellum.

B) cerebral cortex.

Injury to which region of the brain could result in problems interpreting speech?

A) Wernicke area
B) Prefrontal area
C) Limbic system
D) Basal ganglia

A) Wernicke area

The primary visual cortex is located in the:

A) temporal lobe.
B) occipital lobe.
C) frontal lobe.
D) parietal lobe.

B) occipital lobe.

The ______ is a transverse fiber tract that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.

A) corpus callosum
B) cauda equina
C) medial lemniscus
D) pons

A) corpus callosum

The meningeal layer that lies directly on the outer surface of the brain is the:

A) pia mater.
B) dura mater.
C) arachnoid mater.
D) epidural membrane.

A) pia mater.

The fluid found inside the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space is:

A) serum.
B) synovial fluid.
C) cerebrospinal fluid.
D) dopamine.

C) cerebrospinal fluid.

Which pair of vessels supplies oxygenated blood to the brain?

A) Internal and external jugular veins
B) Carotid and vertebral arteries
C) Internal and external carotid arteries
D) Subclavian and spinal arteries

B) Carotid and vertebral arteries

Stimulation of the vagus nerve results in:

A) decreased gastrointestinal activity.
B) increased respiratory rate.
C) decreased heart rate.
D) pupil dilation.

C) decreased heart rate.

Sympathetic motor neurons at the neuromuscular junction release:

A) epinephrine.
B) norepinephrine.
C) acetylcholine.
D) serotonin.

B) norepinephrine.

An effect of alpha-1 receptor stimulation is:

A) tissue damage by antioxidants.
B) radiation injury.
C) excess amounts of vitamin C and E.
D) the presence of edema.

B) radiation injury.

Specific areas of cutaneous innervation that are associated with spinal cord levels are called:

A) dermatomes.
B) Brodmann areas.
C) autonomic fields.
D) cutaneous fields.

A) dermatomes.

Injury to which cranial nerve would cause paralysis of the muscles of facial expression?

A) Trigeminal
B) Abducens
C) Facial
D) Vagus

C) Facial

Diffuse axonal injury results from:

A) blunt focal trauma.
B) open skull fractures.
C) rotational acceleration forces.
D) cerebral edema.

C) rotational acceleration forces.

All of the following signs are associated with diffuse axonal injury except:

A) Loss of consciousness
B) Headache
C) Alterations in breathing patterns
D) Altered pupillary reactions

B) Headache

Most forms of focal brain injury or diffuse axonal injury are associated with increased:

A) blood pressure.
B) respiratory rate.
C) intracranial pressure.
D) cerebral blood flow.

C) intracranial pressure.

A concussion is defined as temporary axonal disturbance with loss of consciousness lasting less than:

A) a few minutes.
B) 1 hour.
C) 6 hours.
D) 24 hours.

C) 6 hours.

Spinal shock involves loss of:

A) skeletal motor function.
B) peripheral sensory function.
C) autonomic function.
D) All of the above

D) All of the above

In individuals with spinal cord injuries, autonomic hyperreflexia occurs:

A) before spinal shock.
B) during spinal shock.
C) after spinal shock is resolved.
D) in individuals who did not develop spinal shock.

C) after spinal shock is resolved.

Vital to the management of individuals with spinal cord trauma is preventing long-term complications. All of the following are potential complications of spinal cord trauma except:

A) skin breakdown.
B) thromboembolism.
C) pneumonia.
D) immunosuppression.

D) immunosuppression.

Autonomic hyperreflexia is often caused by:

A) pain stimulation below the level of the spinal cord lesion.
B) bowel or bladder emptying.
C) stress and anxiety.
D) dehydration.

A) pain stimulation below the level of the spinal cord lesion.

In terms of risk factors, cerebral vascular accidents (strokes) are most similar to:

A) myocardial infarctions.
B) brain cancers.
C) Alzheimer disease.
D) Parkinson disease.

A) myocardial infarctions.

The most common cause of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) is obstruction of a cerebral artery by:

A) atherosclerotic plaque.
B) a fat embolus.
C) vasospasm.
D) a thrombus.

D) a thrombus.

In the pathophysiology of cerebral infarction, the release of which substance is associated with neuron hyperpolarization and seizure activity?

A) Neurotransmitter
B) Endotoxin
C) Excitotoxins
D) Calcium

C) Excitotoxins

In subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), blood accumulates:

A) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the brain and skull.
B) around neurons and neuroglia in the brain tissue.
C) in the ventricles.
D) All the above

A) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the brain and skull.

All of the following problems are complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) except:

A) vasospasm.
B) increased cerebral blood flow.
C) cerebral edema.
D) seizures.

B) increased cerebral blood flow.

The most common source of life-threatening meningitis is:

A) streptococcus pneumoniae.
B) fungal infection.
C) haemophilus influenzae.
D) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

A) streptococcus pneumoniae.

Symptoms of bacterial meningitis can include all of the following except:

A) mild frontal headache.
B) skin rash.
C) nuchal rigidity.
D) vomiting.

A) mild frontal headache.

Encephalitis is usually caused by:

A) viral infection.
B) bacterial infection.
C) parasitic infection.
D) fungal infection.

A) viral infection.

The development of sensory and motor symptoms in multiple sclerosis is caused by:

A) degeneration of sensory and motor neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
B) loss of neurotransmitter function in the spinal cord.
C) immunologic and inflammatory demyelination of central nervous system neurons.
D) receptor abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction and in the skin.

C) immunologic and inflammatory demyelination of central nervous system neurons.

An individual who is unable to visually recognize and identify objects because of injury to the sensory cortex has:

A) anomia.
B) dysphasia.
C) agnosia.
D) echolalia.

C) agnosia.

The tonic phase of an epileptic seizure is characterized by:

A) involuntary muscle contraction and loss of consciousness.
B) cessation of seizure activity.
C) aura and prodromal signs.
D) alternating muscle contraction and relaxation.

A) involuntary muscle contraction and loss of consciousness.

Which of the following vertebral disorders involves a structural defect (often hereditary) that causes forward displacement of affected vertebra?

A) Spinal stenosis
B) Spondylosis
C) Degenerative disk disease
D) Herniated nucleus pulposus

B) Spondylosis

Which of the following problems are likely to occur following a severe focal brain injury?

A) Cerebral edema
B) Subdural hematoma
C) Contrecoup injury
D) All of the above

D) All of the above

A decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is related to which of the following physiological changes?

A) Increase in cerebral blood flow
B) Decrease in arterial blood pressure
C) Decrease in intracranial pressure
D) Cerebral artery vasodilation

B) Decrease in arterial blood pressure

The displacement of the temporal lobe into the tentorial notch resulting in brain stem compression is know as a(n):

A) central herniation.
B) interstitial herniation.
C) infratentorial herniation.
D) uncal herniation.

D) uncal herniation.

Excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation in the ventricles or subarachnoid space is a condition called:

A) cerebral edema.
B) CSF shunting.
C) Cheyne-Stokes condition.
D) hydrocephalus.

D) hydrocephalus.

An individual with paralysis of the lower extremities has:

A) paraplegia.
B) hemiparesis.
C) paratonia.
D) quadriplegia.

A) paraplegia.

The main source of bleeding in subdural hematomas is:

A) arterial.
B) venous.
C) capillary.
D) sinus.

B) venous.

Which intervertebral disks are most likely to be herniated?

A) C5-C7
B) T6-T8
C) T12-L3
D) L4-S1

D) L4-S1

Risk factors for stroke syndromes include all of the following except:

A) primary hypertension.
B) anticoagulant medications.
C) atrial fibrillation.
D) diabetes mellitus.

B) anticoagulant medications.

The most common neurologic disorder observed in individuals with AIDS is:

A) peripheral neuropathies.
B) stroke.
C) encephalopathy.
D) central nervous system (CNS) tumors.

C) encephalopathy.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the degeneration of:

A) motor neurons in the spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
B) skeletal muscle tissue.
C) myelin in the peripheral nervous system.
D) myelin in the central nervous system.

A) motor neurons in the spinal cord and peripheral nerves.

Immediately following a spinal cord injury, spinal reflexes below the level of the lesion are disrupted because of:

A) accumulation of toxic metabolites.
B) spinal cord swelling.
C) parasympathetic disruption.
D) disruption of impulses to higher brain centers.

B) spinal cord swelling.

Symptoms of autonomic hyperreflexia include the following:

A) Headache and blurred vision
B) Nausea and dizziness
C) Chest pain and shortness of breath
D) Hyperactive patellar reflex and muscle spasms

A) Headache and blurred vision

A severe focal injury to the temporal region of the skull can rupture the middle meningeal artery, resulting in an epidural hemorrhage. In this type of intracranial hemorrhage, the bleeding occurs between the dura mater and the:

A) pia mater.
B) arachnoid mater.
C) brain.
D) skull.

D) skull.

A major risk factor for the development of a chronic subdural hematoma is:

A) trauma.
B) brain cancer.
C) alcoholism.
D) meningitis.

C) alcoholism.

Which of the following is not a type of subdural hematoma?

A) Chronic
B) Intracerebral
C) Acute
D) Subacute

B) Intracerebral

Intracerebral hemorrhages most frequently occur in the:

A) frontal and temporal lobes.
B) occipital and parietal lobes.
C) diencephalon and midbrain.
D) cerebral cortex.

A) frontal and temporal lobes.

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