The Language of Medicine, 9th ed. - Chapter 17

135 terms by bmgilli

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pupil

part of the eye where light rays enter

conjunctiva

membrane lining of the inner surfaces of the eyelids and anterior portion of the eyeball over the white of the eye

cornea

a fibrous, transparent tissue layered over the pupil and iris that refracts light rays for proper focusing in the posterior of the eye

sclera

the white of the eye

choroid

dark brown membrane inside the sclera containing many blood vessels

iris

the colored portion of the eye; its muscles help constrict and dilate the pupil

uvea

the choroid, iris, and ciliary body

ciliary body

surrounds and adjusts the shape and thickness of the lens

refraction

the bending of light rays as they pass through the cornea, lens and other tissues

accommodation

refractory adjustment of vision at different distances

aqueous humor

maintains the shape of the anterior portion of the eye and nourishes the structures in that region

vitreous humor

soft, jelly-like material that maintains the shape of the eyeball

retina

the thin, delicate, and sensitive nerve layer of the eye

rods

sensitive receptor cells of the retina that function at reduced levels of light and are responsible for peripheral vision

cones

sensitive receptor cells of the retina that function in bright levels of light and are responsible for color and central vision

optic nerve

Following a chemical change occurring in the rods and cones, nerve impulses are sent from the eye to the brain via this tissue.

optic disc

the region of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina

macula

the small, oval, yellowish area adjacent to the optic disc

fovea centralis

the central depression of the macula; its composed largely of cones and is the location of the sharpest vision in the eye

right

rods and cones are stimulated in the left half of each retina if an object is on THIS side of the visual field

left

fibers from the left half of each retina form an optic tract leading to THIS side of the visual cerebral cortex

binocular vision

images are fused in the occipital lobe of the brain producing a single visual sensation

hemianopsia

the loss of vision, which occurs in both eyes, on the contralateral visual field (e.g., damage to nerve cells in the right visual cerebral cortex causes loss of vision in the left visual field in both eyes)

blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelid

blepharoptosis

falling or drooping of the eyelid

conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva occurring as a result of blood vessel dilation from allergens, bacterial infection, or virus

anisocoria

unequally sized pupils

corneal abrasion

scratch on the cornea

cycloplegia

paralysis of the ciliary body

dacryoadenitis

inflammation of the tear gland

iritis

inflammation of the iris

keratitis

inflammation of the cornea

lacrimation

process of producing tears

intraocular

pertaining to within the eye

ophthalmoplegia

paralysis of the eye

optometrist

nonmedical professional who can examine eyes to determine vision problems and prescribe lenses

optician

nonmedical professional who grinds lenses and fits glasses

palpebral

pertaining to the eyelid

papilledema

swelling of the optic disc

phacoemulsification

technique of cataract extraction using ultrasonic vibrations to fragment the lens and aspirate it from the eye

pupillary

pertaining to the pupil

hypertensive retinopathy

disease of the retina caused by high blood pressure

corneoscleral

pertaining to the cornea and the white of the eye

uveitis

inflammation of the choroid, iris, and ciliary body

amblyopia

the unilateral or bilateral reduction of visual activity

diplopia

double vision

miosis

contraction of the pupil

mydriasis

widening of the pupil

nyctalopia

night blindness

photophobia

light sensitivity

presbyopia

impairment of vision due to old age

scotoma

area of decreased vision surrounded by area of normal vision; blind spot

xerophthalmia

dry eye

hyperopia

farsightedness

esotropia

inward turning of the eye

exotropia

outward turning of the eye

astigmatism

defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye

myopia

nearsightedness

cataract

clouding of the lens causing decreased vision

chalazion

small, hard, cystic mass on the eyelid formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland

diabetic retinopathy

retinal effects of diabetes mellitus including microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization

glaucoma

increased intraocular pressure resulting in damage to the retina and optic nerve with loss of vision

tonometry

measures intraocular pressure to detect glaucoma

trabecularplasty

laser therapy for chronic open-angle glaucoma

hordeolum

localized, purulent, inflammatory staphyloccal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid (i.e., sty)

macular degeneration

progressive damage to the macula of the retina causing loss of central vision and blindness

nystagmus

repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes caused by brain tumors or disease of the inner ears

retinal detachment

trauma to the eye, head injuries, bleeding, scarring, or shrinkage of the vitreous humor can produce holes or tears resulting in THIS pathology

strabismus

abnormal deviation of the eye due to weakness of the muscle controlling the position of the eye

hypertropia

upward deviation of one eye

hypotropia

downward deviation of one eye

flourescein angiography

intravenous injection of a dye followed by serial photographs of the retina

ophthalmoscopy

visual examination of the interior of the eye

slit lamp microscopy

examination of anterior ocular structure under microscopic magnification

visual acuity test

clarity of vision is assessed with a Snellen chart

visual field test

measurement of the area within which objects are seen when eyes are fixed, looking straight ahead without movement of head

enucleation

removal of the entire eyeball

keratoplasty

surgical repair of the cornea (a.k.a., corneal transplant)

laser photocoagulation

intense, precisely focused light beam creates an inflammatory reaction that seals retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels

LASIK

use of an excimer laser to correct errors of refraction

scleral buckle

suture of a silicone band to the sclera over a detached portion of the retina; used to treat retinal detachment

pinna

projecting part, or flap, of the outer ear; auricle

auditory canal

part of the ear that leads from the pinna and is lined with numerous glands that produce a waxy substance; external auditory meatus

cerumen

waxy substance produced by auditory canal

tympanic membrane

the membrane between the outer and middle ear; eardrum

ossicles

three small bones that conduct sound waves through the middle ear

malleus; incus; stapes

three ossicles in order of vibration (separate these by semicolons and a space)

oval window

membrane that separates the middle from the inner ear

eustachian tube

canal leading from the middle ear to the pharynx that helps prevent damage to the eardrum and shock to the middle and inner ears; auditory tube

labyrinth

the inner ear; named such due to its maze-like structure

cochlea

bony, snail-shaped structure that contains auditory fluids through which vibrations travel

perilymph; endolymph

two types of auditory fluids contained within the cochlea (separate these by semicolons and a space)

organ of Corti

tiny hair cells within the cochlea that receive vibrations from auditory liquids and relay sound waves to auditory nerve fibers

auditory nerve fibers

transmits sound wave impulses to the auditory center of the cerebral cortex

vestibule

connects the cochlea to the semicircular canals

semicircular canals

contains endolymph and sensitive hair cells essential for the transmission of impulses that help maintain equilibrium

acoustic

pertaining to hearing (not auditory)

audiogram

record of a person's hearing ability

auditory

pertaining to hearing (not acoustic)

aural

pertaining to the ear

postauricular

pertaining to in back of the ear

cochlear

pertaining to the cochlea

mastoiditis

inflammation of the bone process extending downward behind the auditory canal

myringotomy

incision into the eardrum

ossiculoplasty

surgical repair of the malleus, incus, and stapes

otomycosis

fungal infection of the ear

otolaryngologist

medical doctor specializing in the ear, nose, and throat

otopyorrhea

pus-like discharge from ear

salpingopharyngeal

pertaining to the eustachian tubes and throat

stapedectomy

removal of the stapes

tympanoplasty

surgical reconstruction of the bones of the middle ear with reconnection of the eardrum to the oval window

vestibulocochlear

pertaining to the vestibule and cochlea

hyperacusis

abnormally acute sensitivity to sounds

audiometer

instrument used to measure hearing

macrotia

abnormally large ears

acoustic neuroma

benign tumor from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve in the brain

cholesteatoma

collection of skin cells and cholesterol in sac within middle ear

deafness

loss of the ability to hear

nerve deafness

hearing disorder resulting from the impairment of cochlea or auditory nerve

conductive deafness

hearing disorder resulting from impairment of the middle ear ossicles and membranes

Meniere disease

disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear with elevated endolymph pressure within cochlea and semicircular canals; symptoms include tinnitus, sensitivity to sound, loss of hearing, headache, and vertigo

otitis media

inflammation of the middle ear

otosclerosis

hardening of the bony tissue of the middle ear causing fixation of the stapes bone and eventual deafness

tinnitus

sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in the ears

vertigo

sensation of irregular or whirling motion

audiometry

testing of the sense of hearing

cochlear implant procedure

surgical insertion of a device that allows sensorineural hearing-impaired persons to understand speech

ear thermometry

measurement of the temperature of the eardrum

otoscopy

visual examination of the ear canal

tuning fork test

test of ear conduction using a vibration source

Rinne test

tuning fork test where examiner places the base of the vibrating fork against mastoid bone

Weber test

tuning fork test where instrument is place on the center of the forehead

suppurative otitis media

inflammation of the middle ear with pus formation

serous otitis media

noninfectious inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of serous fluid

presbycusis

deafness due to old age

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