a cause of atrophy that occurs in paralyzed limbs
reduced size of a cell/tissue/organ; prompted by decrease in functional demand, ischemia, chronic nutritional deprivation, aging
increase in # of cells; prompted by increase in hormonal signals or functional demand.
often seen with hypertrophy
malnutrition and decreased blood flow
cells will reduce in size and energy requirements during periods of ______ and ________.
one cell type turns into another cell type
increase in cell size; prompted by increase in growth (trophic) signals, increase in functional demand
often seen w/ hyperplasia.
skin warts are caused by this (2 terms)
another term for "wasting"
changing of one cell type to another; prompted by a persistent stressor; will resolve if stressor is removed, unless it already progressed to cancer.
dog > cat
bodybuilders increase muscle this way (2 terms)
deranged cell growth (different size, shape, uniformity, arrangement, structure); prompted by persistent stressor; will resolve if stressor is removed, unless it already progressed to cancer.
caused by abnormal differentiation of dividing cells, which are not confined to the basal layer as they normally would be; DNA has mutations
a type of atrophy that occurs after being in a cast (2 terms)
this type of cell growth occurs when body is adapting to disease conditions (2 terms)
this occurs when an organ ENLARGES after a portion is surgically removed or not functioning (2 terms)
occurs when a body part REGENERATES after a portion is removed (2 terms)
occurs due to decreased work demands
occurs when breasts enlarge due to estrogen stimulation (2 terms)
lack of endocrine stimulation
an atrophy of reproductive organs during menopause is caused by _______
fully differentiated body parts with specialized functions
tissues & 4 different kinds of tissues
groups of similar cell types that combine to form a specific function
1. connective (blood, bone, cartilage)
smallest component of the living individual
organized structure made of lipids, carbs & proteins arranged in a bilayer. transfers, contains, communicates.
polar components of the plasma membrane
phospholipid & glycolipid
Proteins that pass through the cell membrane; allow communication & transport between intra/extracellular
part of the cell membrane; bound to the lipid tails; form channels that allow for ion transport across the membrane.
project into the intra/extracellular envi; excluding transport functions (?)
ingredients: water, protein, fat, glycogen, electrolytes, pigments; colloid substance
organelles; 6 organelles
structures within cell that have specific functions
1. Endoplasmic reticulum
2. golgi apparatus
network of tubules (SUBWAY); produces proteins & fats; composed of rough (makes lysosomal enzymes; bound ribosomes make proteins) & smooth (makes lipids, lipoproteins & steroid hormones; regulates calcium)
membraneous structure; prepares substances produced by the ER for section out of the cell.
small sacs that digest cell debris w/ hydrolitic enzymes. formed in the ER.
small (smaller than lysosomes) sacs that neutralize free radicals w/ contained oxidases.
large bodies that recognize abnormally formed/folded proteins; help w/ proteolysis
produces ATP; has enzymes needed for citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation.
outer membrane does lipid synth & fatty acid metabolism; inner membrane has transport proteins for ATP synthesis.
linked to the development of oxidative stress.
contains 2 types of nuclei acid combined w/ protein (DNA & RNA); controls cell reproduction
nuclear membrane is also doubled layered!
chromosomes & genes
coiled structures of chromatin; each cell has 23 pairs
individual units of inheritance that determine cell protein characteristics; located on chromosomes containing DNA
(roughly: DNA > GENE > CHROMATIN > CHROMOSOME)
microtubule & microfilament structures that give the cell it's shape, movement & intracellular transport
6 cell functions common to all cell types
passive transport & it's 3 types
substances enter/leave cell passively w/ little energy required
1. diffusion: movement of particles from high > low concentration; GET TO EQUILIBRIUM
2. osmosis: how water moves across semi-perm membrane to area of higher solute concentration
3. facilitated diffusion: use of transport proteins
active transport & its 2 subtypes
requires energy when transporting particles across membrane, moving them against the concentration/electrochemical gradient.
primary active transport: energy is required for movement of 1 substance
secondary active transport: energy for the movement of a 2nd substance comes directly from the active transport of the 1st substance.
2 types of secondary active transport
cotransport/symport: both transport substances go in the same direction
countertransport/antiport: transport substances go in opposite directions
endocytosis & its 2 subtypes
transport of large substances into the cell
pinocytosis: ingestion of small vesicles OR fluid particles; requires ATP
phagocytosis: ingestion of large particles (cells, bacteria, damaged components); releases free radicals
*Any alteration in endocytosis capability is the foundation for disease*
source of energy for cell function; product of chem reaction between oxygen & nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, enzymes).
special proteins found on cell membranes or inside the cell; enable communication between cells
signaling molecule that binds with receptor proteins to start the signal transduction pathway
the local effect produced (by signal transduction) when a ligand binds with a receptor protein
the systemic effect produced (by signal transduction) when a ligand (HORMONE) binds with a receptor protein
changes in physical/functional properties of cells; process occurs by repression of some genes and experssion of others
'body' cells that divide by mitosis, producing 2 daughter cells w/ identical DNA
'sex' cells that divide by meiosis, producing 4 gametocytes w/ half the # of chromosomes
4 phases of mitosis
purpose of cell adaptation
allow cell to survive, but if stressor too great/long-lasting, cell will die.
apoptosis & 3 reasons for it
programmed cell death, prompted by genetic signal whose goal is to replace OLD with NEW.
1. damaged genetic material/mutation
2. old age
3. reduce # of cells
fusion/incomplete separation of digit soft tissue that can be caused by alterations in apoptosis.
cell death due to cell injury; disorderly; associated w/ inflammation
causes of necrosis
toxins (chemical, pathogenic)
physical injury (mechanical, chem, thermal)
serum deficit injury (nutrition, hydration, oxygenation)
disease of cardiac muscle resulting from excessive functional demand.
left ventricle pumps harder due to increase in outflow pressure (either from stiff valve or hypertension), and it's wall becomes thick & stiff b/c of increased cell size. Stiffness prevents it from adequately filling, and reduces cardiac output.
primary vs. secondary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
no specific cause; inherited
caused by underlying condition that increases left ventricular workload (hypertension)
beta-adrenergic receptor blockers
drug designed to reduce resistance against which left ventricle must pump.
blocks catecholamines & slows heart rate, allowing ventricle to fill during longer relaxation period.
a condition of hyperplasia prompted by hormone stimulation of excessive growth; form of hyperpituitarism
clinical manifestations: abnormal growth of hands/feet
highest prevalence of acromegaly is among...
men & women age 30-50
cause of excess growth hormone in 90% of acromegaly cases?
benign pituitary hormone: adenoma
like acromegaly, but occurs before the fusion of the epiphyseal plates (so infants/children)
7 clinical manifestations of acromegaly
1. soft tissue swelling
2. altered facial features (prominent jaw/brow/nose; large tongue/lips)
3. pain/numbness in hands
4. deepened voice
6. skin changes (coarse hair, oily, sweaty)
7. altered repro function
more stable measure of growth hormone level (GH fluctuates throughout the day)
glucose tolerance test
necessary in diagnosis of acromegaly; 75 g glucose normally suppresses GH to 1 ng/mL. if level is elevated after 1 hour of ingestion, acromegaly is indicated.
what causes deepened voice & snoring in acromegaly?
hyperplasia of cells in sinuses/vocal cords.
what causes excessive sweating/skin odor in acromegaly?
what contributes to the altered reproductive function in acromegaly?
if caused by an adenoma, it can compress the pituitary and impact the production of other hormones.
is acromegaly irreversible?
Yes, but only if caught early
3 treatment options for acromegaly
2 types of cervical cells
squamous epithelium - lines outside
columnar epithelium - inside endocervical canal
what is estrogen's effect on cervical cells?
high estrogen levels (during pregnancy & luteal phase of period) prompt transition of squamous epithelial cells > columnar.
low estrogen levels (during menopause) prompt transition of columnar cells > squamous epithelial
these metaplastic changes aren't pathologic
where the two different cervical cell types meet; a dynamic area that changes in response to hormones, pH, etc.
area of cervix most vulnerable to stressors?
squamous epithelial components of the transformation zone
4 risk factors for cervical dysplasia
1. more than 3 partners
2. exposure to HPV
3. early onset sexual activity
how can HPV cause cervical dysplasia?
integrates self into host cell genome
SCREENING test for cervical dysplasia. cells from endocervix & ectocervix (ideally transformation zone) are collected for microscopic viewing.
DIAGNOSTIC test for cervical dysplasia. allows for visualization of cervical changes & procurement of biopsy
3 treatment options for cervical dysplasia
1. cryosurgery (cold therapy)
2. cone biopsy (removes cone-shaped area of cervical tissue in transformational zone)
3. LEEP (large loop electrosurgical excision procedure; wire heated by electric current)
what has the AHA added as a risk factor for CVD?
mainstream vs. sidestream smoke
active vs. passive (secondhand)
what is the pathophysiology of air pollution & CVD?
toxin-containing smoke enters lung, free radicals > oxidative stress >
2. release of cytokines
3. vascular dysfunction
4. altered gene activation
5. contributes to development of atherosclerosis
is smoking a causative or additive factor in CVD?
what does the cell secrete?
glycoproteins or lipoproteins, after they've been packaged into vesicles
what is aerobic respiration?
use of oxygen to produce energy