The Language of Medicine, 9th ed. - Chapter 18

107 terms by bmgilli

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glands

tissues that release chemicals inside and outside the body

hormones

chemical messengers that regulate the functions of the body

receptors

recognition sites on various target tissues within the body on which hormones act; initiate specific biological effects

endocrine glands

glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

exocrine glands

glands that send chemical substances via ducts to the outside of the body

pineal gland

gland that secretes melatonin

melatonin

hormone that functions to support the body's biological clock and helps to induce sleep

thymus gland

gland that produces thymosin

thymosin

hormone important to the development of the immune responses in newborns

prostaglandins

hormones that (1) stimulate the contractions of the uterus; (2) regulate body temperature; (3) help lower blood pressure

thyroid gland

gland that produces hormones that help control calcium levels and maintain a normal metabolism

tetraiodothyronine

hormone produced in the thyroid that helps regulate metabolism (i.e., T4)

triiodothyronine

hormone produced in the thyroid that helps regulate metabolism (i.e., T3)

calcitonin

hormone secreted by the thyroid when calcium levels are high in order to stimulate calcium to leave the blood and enter the bones

parathyroid glands

glands that produce hormones that regulate calcium levels in the blood

parathyroid hormone

hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that mobilizes calcium from the bones into the bloodstream when calcium levels are low

homeostasis

equilibrium or constancy in the internal environment

adrenal glands

glands that secrete corticosteroids and catecholamine hormones

adrenal cortex

part of the adrenal gland that secretes corticosteroids

adrenal medulla

part of the adrenal gland that secretes catecholamine

corticosteroids

complex chemicals derived from cholesterol

catecholamines

chemicals derived from amino acids

glucocorticoids

corticosteroids that have an important influence on the metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins and have a powerful anti-inflammatory effect

cortisol

hormone that helps regulate glucose, fat, and protein metabolism; raises blood glucose as part of a response to stress

cortisone

hormone useful in treating inflammatory conditions

mineralocorticoid

aldosterone is this type of hormone

aldosterone

hormone that regulates blood volume, blood pressure and electrolyte concentration by regulating the concentration of salts and helping the kidney reabsorb sodium and water

sex hormones

Produced in the adrenal cortex, androgens and estrogens are THESE types of hormones.

epinephrine

hormone that increases the heart rate and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes, and releases glucose from glycogen when body needs it for more energy

norepinephrine

hormone that constricts blood vessels to raise blood pressure

sympathomimetic agents

hormones that mimic, or copy, the actions of the sympathetic nervous system

pancreas

endocrine and exocrine gland that secretes insulin and digestive enzymes

islets of Langerhans

the endocrine tissue of the pancreas producing insulin and glucagon

insulin

hormone that lowers high-levels of blood sugar by helping it enter the body cells; also lowers blood sugar by causing the conversion of glucose to glycogen

glucagon

hormone that raises low-levels of blood sugar by acting on liver cells to promote conversion of glycogen back to glucose

pituitary gland

gland located at the base of the brain that regulates growth hormones and make hormones that controls several other glands

hypophysis

other name for the pituitary gland

adenohypophysis

the anterior lobe of the pituitary

neurohypophysis

the posterior lobe of the pituitary

growth hormone

hormone that stimulates protein synthesis that results in growth of bones, muscles and other tissues

somatotropin

other name for growth hormone

thyroid-stimulating hormone

hormone that stimulates the growth of the thyroid gland and secretion of thyroid hormones

thyrotropin

other name for thyroid-stimulating hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

hormone that stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and increases its secretion of steroid hormones

adrenocorticotropin

other name for adrenocorticotropic hormone

gonadotropic hormones

hormones that stimulate secretions of the ovaries and testes

prolactin

hormone that stimulates breast development during pregnancy and sustains milk production after birth

antidiuretic hormone

hormone that stimulates the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules

oxytocin

hormone that stimulates uterine contractions and maintains labor during childbirth

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland

endemic goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland occurring in certain regions and peoples where there is a lack of iodine in the diet

adenomatous goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland with hyperplasia, nodules, and adenomas

hyperthyroidism

overactivity of the thyroid gland

Graves disease

most common form of hyperthyroidism; it is considered an autoimmune disorder and is characterized by an increased heart rate, higher body temperature, weight loss, and exophthalmos

thyrotoxicosis

overactivity of the thyroid gland; another term for hyperthyroidism

hypothyroidism

underactivity of the thyroid gland causing fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, and slow heart rate

myxedema

advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood caused by atrophy of the thyroid gland; skin becomes puffy due to the collection of mucus-like material under the skin

cretinism

extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to lack of normal physical and mental growth

thyroid carcinoma

cancer of the thyroid gland

hyperparathyroidism

excessive production of parathormone resulting in hypercalcemia and damage to the kidneys, heart, and bones

hypoparathyroidism

deficient production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia, muscle and nerve weakness, and muscle spasms

tetany

constant muscle contraction

adrenal virilism

excessive secretion of the adrenal androgens resulting in amenorrhea, hirsutism, and acne

Cushing syndrome

group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from adrenal cortex (e.g., obesity, moon-like face, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia and hypertension)

Addison disease

hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex resulting in malaise, weakness, muscle atrophy, and loss of fluids; thought to be due to autoimmune adrenalitis.

pheochromocytoma

benign tumor of the adrenal medulla resulting in the production of excess secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine

hyperinsulinism

excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia

diabetes mellitus

lack of insulin secretion or resistances of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells

Type 1

form of diabetes mellitus that is an autoimmune disease; results in the destruction of beta islet cells and a complete deficiency of insulin on the body

Type 2

form of diabetes mellitus occurring in older age and with obesity; deficiency of insulin occurs with insulin resistance

insulin resistance

the resistance of target tissues to the action of insulin

metabolic syndrome

precursor to type 2 diabetes; associated with insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and excessive triglycerides in the blood

ketoacidosis

fats are improperly burned leading to an accumulation of ketones and acids in the body; a primary complication of type 1 diabetes

insulin shock

severe hypoglycemia caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise; primary complication of type 1 diabetes

acromegaly

hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities

gigantism

hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues

dwarfism

congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone

panhypopituitarism

deficiency of all pituitary hormones

syndrome of inappropriate ADH

excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone producing water retention in the body

diabetes insipidus

insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone causing the kidney tubules to fail to hold back needed water and salts; polyuria and polydipsia are two symptoms

fasting plasma glucose

measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours

glucose tolerance test

used to diagnose pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes

glycosylated hemoglobin test

measures long term glucose control

serum and urine tests

measurement of hormones, electrolytes, glucose, and other substances and indicators or endocrine function

thyroid function tests

measurement of T3, T4, and TSH

exophthalmometry

measurement of eyeball protrusion

radioactive iodine uptake scan

radioactive iodine is administered and its uptake is by thyroid is imaged to assess function

thyroid scan

scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes thyroid gland after intravenous administration of radioactive compound

adenectomy

removal of a gland

adrenopathy

disease condition of the adrenal gland

hypogonadism

condition of underactive sex glands

pancreatectomy

removal of the pancreas

parathyroidectomy

removal of the parathyroid glands

hypopituitarism

condition of an underactive pituitary gland

thyroiditis

inflammation of the thyroid

androgen

male hormone

hypercalcemia

excessive calcium in the blood

hypercalciuria

excessive calcium in urine

endocrinologist

doctor who specializes in disorders of the endocrine system

polydipsia

excessive thirst

estrogenic

pertaining to female

hypokalemia

deficiency of potassium in blood

hyponatremia

deficiency of sodium in blood

hypophysectomy

removal of the pituitary gland

glycosuria

condition of sugar in urine

euthyroid

normal thyroid

thyroxine

other name for tetraiodothyronine (T4)

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