The Language of Medicine, 9th ed. - Chapter 16

135 terms by bmgilli 

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integumentary system

the skin and its accessory structures (hair, nails, and glands)

epidermis

the outermost, totally cellular layer of the skin containing keratin

dermis

dense, fibrous connective tissue layer of the skin composed of collagen; contains blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibers, hair follicles, and glands

subcutaneous layer

thick, fat-containing tissue layer important for the protection of tissues, heat insulation, and energy storage

squamous epithelium

flat, scale-like cells composing the epidermis

basal layer

deepest layer of the epithelium

stratum corneum

the most superficial layer of the epidermis

keratin

hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails

melanocytes

cells contained within the basal layer; form and contain a brown-black pigment

melanin

black-brown skin pigment vital for the protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

albino

individuals who are incapable of forming melanin; skin and hair are white

collagen

fibrous protein material found in bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and skin; supports and protects blood and nerve networks in the dermis

adipocytes

fat cells

keratin

hard protein

hair follicles

sacs within which each hair fiber grows

nails

hard keratin plates covering the dorsal surface of fingers and toes

hair

fiber composed of a tightly fused meshwork of cells filled with keratin

lunula

semilunar whitish region at the base of the nail plate

cuticle

narrow band of epidermis at the base and sides of the nail plate

paronychium

soft tissue surrounding the nail border

onycholysis

loosening of the nail plate with separation from the nail bed

sebaceous gland

oil-secreting gland in the dermis associated with hair follicles

sweat glands

exocrine glands that allow watery secretions to leave the body

sebum

an oily secretion

sweat

a watery secretion

eccrine sweat gland

most numerous sweat-producing exocrine gland in the skin

apocrine sweat gland

one of the large dermal exocrine glands located in the axilla and gential areas; responsible for body odor

adipose

pertaining to fat

albinism

condition where body is incapable of forming melanin; skin and hair are white

causalgia

burning pain

electrocautery

an instrument containing a needle or blade used during surgery to burn through tissue by means of electrical current

subcutaneous

pertaining to under the skin

dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

dermatoplasty

skin is transplanted to a body surface damaged by disease or injury

dermabrasion

the scraping away of skin

epidermolysis

loosening of the epidermis with the development of large blisters

diaphoresis

sweating

erythema

flushing; widespread redness of skin

erythematous

rash that manifests with a slapped cheek appearance on the face and elsewhere

anhidrosis

abnormal condition of no sweat

ichthyosis

hereditary condition where the skin is dry, rough and scaly because of a defect in keratinization

nevus

pigmented lesion of the skin; mole

lipoma

benign fat tumor

liposuction

removal of subcutaneous fat tissue through a tube that is introduced into the fatty area via a small incision

mycosis

fungal infection

onychomycosis

fungal infection of the nails

paronychia

inflammation and swelling of the soft tissue around the nail

dermatophytosis

fungal infection of the skin

pilosebaceous

pertaining to the hair follicle and sebaceous gland

pyoderma

pus within the skin

rhytidectomy

reconstructive plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and signs of aging skin

seborrhea

excessive secretion from sebaceous glands

seborrheic dermatitis

dandruff

steatoma

cystic collection of sebum that forms in a sebaceous gland and can become infected

trichomycosis

fungal infection of the hair

subungual

pertaining to under the nail

xanthoma

nodules develop under the skin owing to excess lipid deposits and can be associated with high cholesterol level

xeroderma

very dry skin

lesion

area of abnormal tissue

crust

collection of dried serum and cellular debris

cyst

thick-walled closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid fluid

erosion

wearing away or loss or epidermis

fissure

groove or crack-like sore

macule

flat lesion measuring less than 1 cm in diameter

nodule

solid, round or oval elevated lesion 1 cm or more in diameter

papule

small (less than 1 cm in diameter), solid elevation of the skin

polyp

growth extending from the surface of mucous membrane

pilonidal cyst

cyst found over the sacral area of the back in the midline and contains hairs

sebaceous cyst

collection of yellowish, cheesy oily secretion commonly found on the scalp, vulva, and scrotum

pustule

small collection of pus on the skin

ulcer

open sore on the skin or mucous membranes (deeper than an erosion)

decubitus ulcers

open sores caused by pressure that results from lying in one position

vesicle

small collection of clear fluid; blister

wheal

smooth, swollen papule or plaque that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin

alopecia

absence of hair from areas where it normally grows

alopecia areata

autoimmune disease in which hair falls out in patches without scarring or inflammation

ecchymosis

bluish-purplish mark on the skin; bruise

petechia

small, pinpoint hemorrhage

pruritus

itching

urticaria

acute allergic reaction in which red, round wheals develop in the skin

acne

chronic papular and pustular eruption of the skin with increase production of sebum

acne vulgaris

papular and pustular eruptions caused by the build up of sebum and keratin in the pores of the skin

open comedo

sebum plug partially blocking the pore; blackhead

closed comedo

sebum plug completely blocking the pore; whitehead

burns

injury to tissues caused by heat contact

first-degree burns

burns resulting in superficial epidermal lesions, erythema, hyperesthesia, and no blisters

second-degree burns

burns resulting in epidermal and dermal lesions, erythema, blisters, and hyperesthesia

third-degree burns

burns resulting in destruction of the epidermis and dermis and damage to the subcutaneous layer

cellulitis

diffuse, acute infection of the skin marked by local heat, redness, pain, and swelling

eczema

inflammatory skin disease with erythematous, papulovesicular lesions; atopic dermatitis

exanthematous viral disease

rash of the skin due to a viral infection

rubella

German measles

rubeola

measles

varicella

chicken pox

gangrene

death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply

impetigo

bacterial inflammatory skin disease characterized by vesicles, pustules, and crusted-over lesions

psoriasis

chronic, recurrent dermatosis marked by itchy, scaly, red plaques covered by silvery gray scales

scabies

contagious, parasitic infection of the skin with intense pruritus

scleroderma

chronic progressive disease of the skin and internal organs with hardening and shrinking of connective tissue

systemic lupus erythematosus

chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in skin, joints, and internal organs

discoid lupus erythematosus

chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease resulting in photosensitive, scaling, plaque-like, superficial eruptions of the skin

tinea

infection of the skin caused by a fungus

tinea corporis

ringworm

tinea pedis

athlete's foot

tinea barbae

fungus of the skin under the beard

tinea capitis

fungus on the scalp

tinea unguium

fungus affecting the nails

vitiligo

loss of pigment in areas of the skin

leukoderma

white patches on the skin

callus

increased growth of cells in the keratin layer of the epidermis caused by pressure or friction

keloid

hypertrophied, thickened scar developing after trauma or surgical incision

cicatrix

normal scar

keratosis

thickened and rough lesion of the epidermis associated with aging or skin damage

actinic keratosis

rough lesion caused by long-term ultraviolet light exposure; considered a precancerous lesion

leukoplakia

white, thickened patches on mucous membrane tissue of the tongue or cheek

dysplastic nevi

moles that have atypical cells and may progress to form melanoma

verruca

epidermal growth caused by a virus (wart)

basal cell carcinoma

malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis

squamous cell carcinoma

malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells in the epidermis

malignant melanoma

cancerous growth composed of melanocytes

Kaposi sarcoma

malignant, vascular, neoplastic growth characterized by cutaneous nodules

bacterial analyses

samples of skin are examined for presence of microorganisms

purulent

pus-filled

exudate

fluid that accumulates

fungal tests

scrapings from skin lesions, hair specimens, or nail clippings are sent to a laboratory for culture and microscopic examination

cryosurgery

use of subfreezing temperature via liquid nitrogen application to destroy tissue

curettage

use of sharp dermal instrument to scrape away a skin lesion

electrodessication

tissue is destroyed by burning with an electric spark

Mohs micrographic surgery

thin layers of malignant tissue are removed, and each is examined under a microscope to check for adequate extent of the resection

skin biopsy

suspected malignant skin lesions are removed and examined microscopically by a pathologist

punch biopsy

surgical instrument removes a core of tissue by rotation of sharp, surgical edge

shave biopsy

tissue is excised using a cut parallel to the surface of the surrounding skin

skin test

substances are injected intradermally or applied to the skin, and results are observed

patch test

an allergen-treated piece of gauze or filter paper is applied to the skin to diagnose allergies

scratch test

type of allergen test where several scratches are made in the skin and a very minute amount of test material is inserted into the scratches

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