Name some local anesthetics?
Lidocaine, Tetracaine, & Bupivacaine
Name some inhaled general anesthetics:
Halothane, Isoflurane, Nitrous Oxide
Which barbiturate is typically used for anesthesia?
Which benzodiazepine is used for anesthesia?
Which kind of anesthesia are given to psychotic patients?
Neuroleptanesia like Innovar
Innovar contains what drugs?
Droperidol and Fentanyl
Innovar in contraindicated in what disease?
What's Fentanyl used as?
What's droperidol used as?
Sedative, antiemetic, & anticonvulsant
What anesthesia adjunct is used to relieve anxiety?
What anesthesia adjunct is used as sedation?
Which anesthesia adjunct is used to prevent allergic reactions?
Which anesthesia adjunct is used to prevent secretion of fluids into the respiratory tract?
Which anesthesia adjunct is used to prevent aspiration of stomach contents and postsurgical nausea and vomiting?
Which anesthesia adjunct is used for rapid induction of anesthesia?
Cell membranes need to expand by what % for anesthetic to work?
Why does recompression of membrane awakens the subjects?
Opening of Na+ channels
Stage I of Anesthesia causes what?
Analgesia--Loss of pain due to interference with sensory transmission
Stage II of Anesthesia causes what?
Excitement--Increase in b.p., increase in respiraion; to avoid this stage, a short acting barbiturate e.g. thiopental
Stage III of Anesthesia causes what?
Surgical Anesthesia--Regular respiration of skeletal muscle; Surgery may proceed
Stage IV of Anesthesia causes what?
Medullary Paralysis--Severe depression of respiratory and vasomotor centers (avoid death)
Nitrous oxide can cause spinal damage by doing what?
Depriving the body of vit. B12
The rate of rise of arterial partial pressure & speed of induction are fastest for what type of gases?
Those least soluble in blood
Which inhaled anesthesia is most soluble in blood?
Which inhaled anesthesia is least soluble in blood?
Solubility of in inhaled anesthesia in the blood is determined by what?
Blood/gas partition coefficient
It takes longer to reach steady state for what kind of gases?
Those with high blood solubility
Order of rate of induction:
Nitrous oxide>Isolurane>Enflurane> Halothane
Order of rate of recovery from inhale anesthesia?
Nitrous oxide>Isolurane>Enflurane> Halothane
Which inhaled anesthesia can lead to malignant hyperthermia, & hepatitis?
Which inhaled anesthesia has rapid induction/recovery, no hepatotoxicity, & is contraindicated in pt with kidney failure?
Which inhaled anesthesia has low biotransformation, & low organ toxicity?
Which inhaled anesthesia is used with thiopental is least soluble in blood and good for dental surgery?
Which inhaled anesthesia irritates the respiratory tract and may cause explosions?
Which anesthesia has no disadvantages and provides good muscle relaxation?
Which anesthesia must be used with other anesthetics for surgery and provides no muscle relaxation?
Which anesthesia is a poor analgesia but a potent anesthesia with little muscle relaxation?
Which anesthesia is a poor analgesia with rapid onset and lowers IC pressure?
Which anesthesia is best for children, asthmatics but sensitizes myocardium to catecholamines, causes arrhythmis and hepatic toxicity in adults?
Some adverse effects of halothane?
Cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, used with phenylephrine, causes malignant hyperthermia.
What's the only effective drug to treat malignant hyperthermia?
What's the most popular IV anesthesia?
What kind of rate of recovery does propofol have?
Why do patients subjectively feel better after during postop after propofol?
It reduces postop nausea and vomitin
Drugs used for lethal inject are?
Pancuronium bromide, KCl, & Sodium pentothal
What does sodium pentothal do?
It's an anesthesia
What does KCl do?
It stops the heart
What does pancuronium bromide do?
It paralyzes the entire muscular system
Which inhaled anesthesia does not depress the respiratory system or cause muscle relaxation & is the least hepatoxic gas?
What is added to localize effects of local anesthetics?
Which type of nerve block is used for surgery on lower limbs, pelvis, & obstetrics?
Spinal nerve block (Intrathecal)
Which type of nerve block is considered safer than intrathecal nerve block?
Epidural nerve block
Which type of nerve block is used for pain of carcinoma of pancreas or abdomen?
Paravertebral nerve block at t12
What's just as effective as celecoxib in treating painful osteoarthritis in the knee?
Lidoderm is FDA approved for what?
treating nerve pain from shingles
Name some muscle relaxants?
Succinylcholine & pancuronium
The lower the MAC, the .... the anesthetic.
Name some local anesthetics: