Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes Alive
|The atomic weight is only an average of relative weights of an atom and its isotopes, and it may vary from the weight of a specific isotope.||TRUE|
|Emulsions and colloids are the same thing.||TRUE|
|Chemical properties are determined primarily by neutrons.||FALSE|
|A charged particle is generally called an ion.||TRUE|
|Isotopes differ from each other only in the number of electrons contained.||FALSE|
|About 60% to 80% of the volume of most living cells consists of organic compounds.||FALSE|
|Lipids are a poor source of stored energy.||FALSE|
|Current information theorizes that omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of heart disease.||TRUE|
|Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide.||TRUE|
|A molecule consisting of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms is correctly written as CO2.||TRUE|
|The lower the pH, the higher the hydrogen ion concentration.||TRUE|
|Covalent bonds are generally less stable than ionic bonds.||FALSE|
|Hydrogen bonds are comparatively strong bonds.||FALSE|
|The fact that no chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture is the chief difference between mixtures and compounds.||TRUE|
|Alpha particles, although relatively weak energy particles, are second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer.||TRUE|
|No chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture.||TRUE|
|All organic compounds contain carbon.||TRUE|
|A dipeptide can be broken into two amino acids by dehydration synthesis.||FALSE|
|The pH of body fluids must remain fairly constant for the body to maintain homeostasis.||TRUE|
|Mixtures are combinations of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but are not bound by chemical bonds.||TRUE|
|Buffers resist abrupt and large changes in the pH of the body by releasing or binding ions.||TRUE|
| Which of the following elements is necessary for proper conduction of nervous impulses?|
|Choose the statement that is false or incorrect.|
A) In chemical reactions, breaking old bonds requires energy and forming new bonds releases energy.
B) Exergonic reactions release more energy than they absorb.
C) Endergonic reactions absorb more energy than they release.
D) A key feature of the body's metabolism is the almost exclusive use of exergonic reactions by the body.
|D) A key feature of the body's metabolism is the almost exclusive use of exergonic reactions by the body.|
| In general, the lipids that we refer to as oils have ________.|
A) a high water content
B) long fatty acid chains
C) a high degree of saturated bonds
D) a high degree of unsaturated bonds
|D) a high degree of unsaturated bonds|
| The genetic information is coded in DNA by the ________.|
A) regular alteration of sugar and phosphate molecules
B) sequence of the nucleotides
C) three-dimensional structure of the double helix
D) arrangement of the histones
|B) sequence of the nucleotides|
| Which of the following is not true of proteins?|
A) They may be denatured or coagulated by heat or acidity.
B) Some types are called enzymes.
C) They appear to be the molecular carriers of the coded hereditary information.
D) Their function depends on the three-dimensional shape.
|C) They appear to be the molecular carriers of the coded hereditary information.|
| The single most abundant protein in the body is ________.|
| Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of ________.|
| Which of the following describes coenzymes?|
A) organic molecules derived from vitamins
B) two enzymes that perform the same function
C) metal ions
D) enzymes that work together
|A) organic molecules derived from vitamins|
|Which of the following is not a role of molecular chaperonins?|
A) prevent accidental, premature, or incorrect folding of polypeptide chains
B) aid the desired folding and association process of polypeptides
C) help to translocate proteins and certain metal ions across cell membranes
D) promote the breakdown of damaged or denatured proteins
E) act as a biological catalyst
|E) act as a biological catalyst|
| A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with ________.|
A) the release of energy
B) the consumption of energy
C) a synthesis
D) forming a larger molecule
|A) the release of energy|
| Salts are always ________.|
A) ionic compounds
B) single covalent compounds
C) double covalent compounds
D) hydrogen bonded
|A) ionic compounds|
| The numbers listed represent the number of electrons in the first, second, and third energy levels, respectively. On this basis, which of the following is an unstable or reactive atom?|
A) 2, 8, 8
B) 2, 8
D) 2, 8, 1
|D) 2, 8, 1|
| A solution that has a pH of 2 could best be described as being ________.|
D) slightly acidic
| Which of the following is the major positive ion outside cells?|
| Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule?|
| What is a chain of 25 amino acids called?|
| Which of the following constitutes a long chain of simple sugars?|
D) nucleic acid
| What level of protein synthesis is represented by the coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix?|
A) primary structure
B) secondary structure
C) tertiary structure
D) quaternary structure
|B) secondary structure|
|Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the ________.|
A) addition of a water molecule between each two units
B) addition of a carbon atom between each two units
C) removal of a water molecule between each two units
D) removal of a nitrogen atom between each two units
|C) removal of a water molecule between each two units|
| Which statement about enzymes is false?|
A) Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction.
B) Enzymes are composed mostly of protein.
C) Enzymes are organic catalysts.
D) Enzymes may be damaged by high temperature.
|A) Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction.|
|Which of the following statements is false?|
A) Chemical reactions proceed more quickly at higher temperatures.
B) Chemical reactions progress at a faster rate when the reacting particles are present in higher numbers.
C) Larger particles move faster than smaller ones and thus collide more frequently and more forcefully.
D) Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions.
|C) Larger particles move faster than smaller ones and thus collide more frequently and more forcefully.|
|Which of the following is true regarding the concentration of solutions?|
A) Percent solutions are parts per 1000 parts.
B) Molarity is one mole of solute per 1000 ml of solution.
C) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic number of the solute.
D) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic weight of the solvent.
|B) Molarity is one mole of solute per 1000 ml of solution.|
|Select the statement about mixtures that is correct.|
A) A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities.
B) Solutions contain particles that settle out in time.
C) Suspensions can change reversibly from liquid to solid.
D) Suspensions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more components.
|A) A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities.|
| Choose the answer that best describes HCO3-.|
A) a bicarbonate ion
B) common in the liver
C) a weak acid
D) a proton donor
|A) a bicarbonate ion|
| Select which reactions will usually be irreversible regarding chemical equilibrium in living systems.|
A) glucose to CO2 and H2O
B) ADP + Pi to make ATP
C) H2O + CO2 to make H2CO3
D) glucose molecules joined to make glycogen
|A) glucose to CO2 and H2O|
| What happens in redox reactions?|
A) both decomposition and electron exchange occur
B) the electron acceptor is oxidized
C) the electron donor is reduced
D) the reaction is always easily reversible
|A) both decomposition and electron exchange occur|
| Choose the answer that best describes fibrous proteins.|
A) rarely exhibit secondary structure
B) are very stable and insoluble in water
C) are usually called enzymes
D) are cellular catalysts
|B) are very stable and insoluble in water|
| Which of the following does not describe the ATP molecule?|
A) chemical work
B) mechanical work
|Select the most correct statement regarding nucleic acids.|
A) Three forms exist: DNA, RNA, and tDNA.
B) DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A, T, G, and C bases.
C) RNA is a long, single-stranded molecule made up of the bases A, T, G, and C.
D) TDNA is considered a molecular slave of DNA.
|B) DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A, T, G, and C bases.|
| Which of the following is an example of a suspension?|
B) salt water
C) rubbing alcohol
|Select the correct statement about isotopes.|
A) Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their atomic masses.
B) All the isotopes of an element have the same number of neutrons.
C) All the isotopes of an element are radioactive.
D) Isotopes occur only in the heavier elements.
|A) Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their atomic masses.|
| The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are ________.|
A) carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, calcium
B) nitrogen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium
C) carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
D) sodium, potassium, hydrogen, oxygen
|C) carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen|
| An example of a coenzyme is ________.|
B) riboflavin (vitamin B2)
|B) riboflavin (vitamin B2)|
| ________ is fat soluble, produced in the skin on exposure to UV radiation, and necessary for normal bone growth and function.|
A) Vitamin K
C) Vitamin A
D) Vitamin D
|D) Vitamin D|
| In liquid XYZ, you notice that light is scattered as it passes through. There is no precipitant in the bottom of the beaker, though it has been sitting for several days. What type of liquid is this?|
| Atom X has 17 protons. How many electrons are in its valence shell?|
| Which protein types are vitally important to cell function in all types of stressful circumstances?|
A) structural proteins
B) molecular chaperones
C) catalytic proteins
D) regulatory proteins
|B) molecular chaperones|
| If atom X has an atomic number of 74 it would have which of the following?|
A) 37 protons and 37 neutrons
B) 37 electrons
C) 74 protons
D) 37 protons and 37 electrons
|D) 37 protons and 37 electrons|
| What does the formula C6H12O6 mean?|
A) There are 6 calcium, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms.
B) There are 12 hydrogen, 6 carbon, and 6 oxygen atoms.
C) The molecular weight is 24.
D) The substance is a colloid.
|B) There are 12 hydrogen, 6 carbon, and 6 oxygen atoms.|
| Two good examples of a colloid would be Jell-O® and ________.|
| An atom with a valence of 3 may have a total of ________ electrons.|
| Which of the following is a neutralization reaction?|
A) HCl → H+ + Cl-
B) NaOH → Na+ + OH-
C) NH3 + H+ → NH4+2
D) HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
|D) HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O|
| The chemical symbol OO means ________.|
A) zero equals zero
B) both atoms are bonded and have zero electrons in the outer orbit
C) the atoms are double bonded
D) this is an ionic bond with two shared electrons
|C) the atoms are double bonded|
| What is a dipole?|
A) a type of bond
B) a polar molecule
C) a type of reaction
D) an organic molecule
|B) a polar molecule|
| What does CH4 mean?|
A) There is one carbon and four hydrogen atoms.
B) There are four carbon and four hydrogen atoms.
C) This is an inorganic molecule.
D) This was involved in a redox reaction.
|A) There is one carbon and four hydrogen atoms.|
| Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a(n) ________ reaction. |
| Which of the following is not considered a factor in influencing a reaction?|
C) particle size
| Which of the following is not an electrolyte?|
| Which property of water is demonstrated when we sweat?|
A) high heat capacity
B) high heat of vaporization
C) polar solvent properties
|B) high heat of vaporization|
| Sucrose is a ________.|
| What is the ratio of fatty acids to glycerol in neutral fats?|
| In a DNA molecule, the phosphate serves ________.|
A) as a code
B) to hold the molecular backbone together
C) to bind the sugars to their bases
D) as nucleotides
|B) to hold the molecular backbone together|
| Heat shock proteins (hsp) are a type of protein called ________.|
| Which bonds often bind different parts of a molecule into a specific three-dimensional shape?|
D) Amino acid
|The atomic number is equal to the number of ________.||protons (and electrons)|
|Molecules such as methane that are made of atoms that share electrons have ________ bonds.||covalent|
|An atom with three electrons would have a valence of ________.||one|
|AB → A + B is an example of a(n) ________ reaction.||decomposition|
|________ have a bitter taste, feel slippery, and are proton acceptors.||Bases|
|A holoenzyme is composed of an apoenzyme and a(n) ________.||cofactor|
|In a DNA molecule, guanine would connect to ________.||cytosine|
|The ________ molecule directly provides energy for cellular work.||ATP|
|Hydrogen bonds are more like a type of weak ________ than true bonds.||attraction|
|Weak acids and bases make good ________.||buffers|
|Starch is the stored carbohydrate in plants, while ________ is the stored carbohydrate in animals.||glycogen|
|How many phosphates would AMP have attached to it?||one|
|Which metals have a toxic effect on the body?||heavy|