What is the congenital cardiovascular defect? Define
A defect which occurs before birth which is formed during the embryo stage of fetal development
How many blood vessels form the umbilical cord?
What carries deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta?
What is the barrier (organ) that filters and cleanses the fetus blood?
How many fetal shuts are there?
What is the purpose of the foramen ovale?
Shunt blood away from the non functional lungs, Blood entering RA from IVC is shunted across RA into LA through froamen ovale in the interatrial septum, closure mechanism is the greater left arterial pressure generated by inflation of the lungs after birth.
What fetal shunt closure mechanism is unknown but closes with 10-15 hours after birth?
What is the major resistance of the fetal circulation?
Define acyanotic defects
Either left or right shunt or obstructive lesion that doesnt impair oxygen to the tissue. They occure because pressure and resistance to blood flow are lower in the right heart chambers.
Tetralogy of Fallot is a combination of what four defects?
Pulmonic valve stenosis, Ventricular septal defect (VSD), Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), Dextraposed aorta
Define cyanotic defects.
Right to left shuts involving obstructive and communication defects that overcome greater left heart pressure
What is Tricuspid Atresia usually accompanied by?
ASD, a VSD, and a underdeveloped right ventricle
What are reversed with Transposition of the Great Vessels?
Aorta & Pulmonary artery
Syncope is also known as what? (AKA)
Syncopal episode (Fainting spell)
What are two types of shock?
Central shock (cardiogenic) & Peripheral shock
Progressive decrease in blood pressure, Leads to profound tissue hypoxia, and Usually results from inadequate cardiac output
Peripheral shock results from what impairment?
Impaired venous return to the heart
What are the causes of shock?
CHF, Decreased venous return (VR), Hypovolemia (due to hemmmorrhage, burns, and flud or electrolyte imbalances), Pericardial tamponade, Acute reaction to toxins, allergies, etc
What is known ass the Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) when it affects the coronary arteries, and may produce a myocardial infarction of ischemia progresses?
What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis?
Age, Sex (men are slightly more prone than women), Race, Family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) in parents (or their siblings) before age of 50, Cigarette smoking, Diet, Elevated serum lipid levels, Sedentary lifestyle, Obesity, Psychosocial tensions, Personality types, Hypertension, Diabetes
When atherosclerosis affects the heart what are the complications?
Angina pectoris (chest pain that is cardiac in origin), Chronic ischemia (lack of blood to myocardium), Coronary vessel occusion or spasm
What are the different types of myocardial infarctions (MI)?
Trasmural & Subendocardial
What type of MI does not penetrate all the layers of the heart muscle?
List the elevation of serum enzymes in order they peak when cardiac muscle tissue is damaged.
Troponin T and I, Creatine phosphokinase (CPK)/creatin kinase (CK), Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)
What happenes to the heart when there is a ventricular aneurysm rupture?
Necrotic muscle wall becomes thin and bulges outwardsly unitl it bursts
What is the hallmark of congestive heart Failure?
Elevated pressure and congestion in systemic veins and capillaries
What is Congestive Heart Failure also known as?
Impared pumping action of the heart
Assessed by ultrasound to measured gradient and flow
Excess fluid builds up in pericardial space constricting the heart
Excess fluid accumulates in pericardial space
May be caused by weak or ruptured chordae tendinae
Named for the affected valve
Backward bulging of atrioventricular valve leaflets into the atrium
What are the 3 Cardiomyopathy?
Congestive, Hypertrophic (obstructive and non-obstructive), Constrictive
Congestive Cardiomyopathy is characterized by what?
An enlarged heart with large chambers and thin myocardium
What are the characteristics of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and what are the two subtypes?
Small chambers and thick myocardium (obstructive and non-obstructive)
What is Constrictive Cardiomyopathy caused by?
Amyloidosis (an infiltration of myocardial tissue by a glycoprotein that results in fibrosis)
What is the end result of all types of Cariomyopathy?
Decreased Stroke Volume (SV)
List all the cardiomyopathy and what they impair.
Congestive cardiomyopathy (systole), Hypertrophic Cariomyopathy (diastole & systole), Constrictive cardiomyopathy (diastolic filling)