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Claudia Bartley's POP Chapters 13-17

Feet

Blood pressure is normally greater in your ____________________.

Crab

Which has the greater density of the things listed?
A) A fish.
B) A crab.
C) A seagull.

remains the same

When an ice cube in a glass of water melts, the water level in the glass ____________________.

the distance through which the force acts.

A certain hydraulic press multiplies force by 10. This multiplication is done at the expense of ____________________.

Surface Tension

A water strider, an insect that skates on water, is supported by ____________________.

Gravity

Air molecules don't fly off into outer space mainly because of ____________________.

The weight of the atmosphere

What is most responsible for the pressure in the Earth's atmosphere?

less or equal to the air displaced

You would float like a balloon in air if your weight was ____________________.

the atmosphere's weight.

In drinking soda through a straw, you make use of ____________________.

increase by 125%

If you squeeze a bag of air to 80 percent its volume, pressure inside will ____________________.

doubles

When water flows into a pipe that narrows to half its cross-sectional area, the speed of the water ____________________.

drops

When a fluid speeds up in going over a surface, pressure of the fluid against that surface ____________________.

400,000 N

How much lift will be exerted on airplane wings of 100 m2 area when the difference in air pressure below and above is 4% of atmospheric pressure? (atmospheric pressure is about 105 N/m2)

Calorie

Which came first in the history of physics, the calorie or the joule?

low specific heat capacity

A substance that heats up relatively quickly is said to have a ____________________.

specific heat capacity

Which physics concept listed below has most to do with world climate?

expands

When water at 4°C is warmed, it expands. When water at 4°C is cooled, it ____________________.

the low conductivity of wood, even when hot.

The main factor that allows firewalkers to walk barefoot on red hot coals of wood is ____________________.

migrate to the ceiling

If at a party you let helium out of a balloon, it will very soon ____________________.

drops

When air quickly expands, the temperature of that expanding air ____________________.

high-frequency light in and preventing low-frequency radiation from getting out.

In a florist's greenhouse, glass acts as a one-way valve, letting ____________________.

Radiation

Planet Earth loses heat energy mainly by ____________________.

have a wide variety of speeds.

In a container of room-temperature water, the molecules of water ____________________.

The faster ones.

Which molecules in a container of water are the most likely to evaporate and carry energy away with them?

releases energy

When a vapor or gas changes to the liquid phase, the vapor or gas ____________________.

is raised

When air pressure is increased on the surface of water, the temperature required for boiling ____________________.

prevent boiling

Increased pressure on the surface of hot water tends to ____________________.

warmed

When snow forms in the air, the surrounding air is ____________________.

slow-moving water molecules sticking to one another.

Morning dew on the grass results from ____________________.

lower in the water

Compared to an empty ship, will a ship loaded with a cargo of Styrofoam float lower in water or higher in water?

water pressure depending on depth.

Everybody knows that "water seeks its own level," but very few people know why water seeks its own level. The reason has most to do with

9/10 submerged

An astronaut on Earth notes that in her soft drink an ice cube floats with 9/10 its volume submerged. If she were instead in a lunar module parked on the Moon, the ice in the same soft drink would float with

fall

Consider a boat loaded with scrap iron in a swimming pool. If the iron is thrown overboard into the pool, will the water level at the edge of the pool rise, fall, or remain unchanged?

twice

The weight of the stand and suspended solid iron ball is equal to the weight of the container of water as shown above. When the ball is lowered into the water the balance is upset. The amount of weight that must be added to the left side to restore balance, compared to the weight of water displaced by the ball, would be

shows an increase

Gently push down on the pan of the scale and the display shows an increase in force. Likewise if you do the same on the rim of the beaker. But what if you immerse your fingertip in the water. without touching the beaker? Then the scale reading

sphere

Consider a solid brass cube and a solid brass sphere that have equal surface areas. When both are completely submerged in water, the one experiencing the greater buoyant force is the

more

Compared with the mass of a dozen eggs, the mass of air in an "empty refrigerator" is

Higher

Consider a Ping-Pong ball floating in a glass of water that is in an air-tight chamber. When air pressure is increased in the chamber, does the ball float lower, higher, or as before?

sink

Consider an air-filled balloon weighted so that it is on the verge of sinking—that is, its overall density just equals that of water. Now if you push it beneath the surface, it will

upset and the stick rotates clockwise.

A pair of identical balloons are inflated with air and suspended on the ends of a stick that is horizontally balanced. When the balloon on the left is punctured, the balance of the stick is

larger

Water with air bubbles flows through a pipe that becomes narrower. In the narrow region the water gains speed and the bubbles are

Bernoulli principles

You're driving in a convertible car with the top up and the windows closed. You note that the fabric top puffs up. To explain this interesting phenomenon you invoke

nothing

Water molecules in ice link together to form an open-spaced structure. The open pockets in the structure are what makes ice less dense than water, which is why ice floats on water. To be sure you interpret this correctly, answer this: What's inside the open pockets?

right away

Suppose in a restaurant your coffee is served about 5 or 10 minutes before you are ready for it. In order that it be as hot as possible when you drink it, should you pour in the room-temperature cream right away or when you are ready to drink the coffee?

convection

Hot water/steam radiators are common fixtures that nicely warm the interiors of buildings. These radiators warm a room primarily via

cooled

When evaporation of water occurs, the faster-moving (more energetic) water molecules escape the liquid and become molecules in the air. The average kinetic energy of molecules remaining in the liquid is lowered. The water is cooled. Normally, the air that receives the escaping molecules is

the wood

A piece of metal and a piece of wood of equal mass and equal temperature are removed from a hot oven and dropped onto blocks of ice. Which will melt more ice before cooling to the ice temperature?

Pressure

the force applied to a unit area of surface

Buoyant Force

upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid

Archimedes Principle

the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

pascal's principle

the pressure applied to a motionless fluid confined in a container is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid.

principle of flotation

A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight

surface tension

force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface

capillarity

the ability of water to move up and down narrow tubes

atmospheric pressure

the pressure exerted by the atmosphere on all objects within it

barometer

an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure

boyle's law

P₁V₁=P₂V₂

Bernoulli principle

As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases

Plasma

electrified gas containing ions and free electrons.

Temperature

the average kinetic energy of the individual particles

Absolute zero

(cryogenics) the lowest temperature theoretically attainable (at which the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is minimal)

Heat

the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature

internal energy

the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all particles in the system

specific heat capacity

the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celsius

conduction

the transfer of heat energy by molecular and electron collisions within a substance

convection

the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by means of currents in heated fluids

radiation

the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

terrestrial radiation

The radiation emmited by the Earth to outer space

Newton's law of cooling

The rate loss of heat from an object is proportional to the temperature difference between the object and its surroundings

Green house effect

The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of the Earth that occurs when water vapor, carbon dioxide, and gases absorb and radiate thermal energy.

solar constant

1400 J/m2 received from the Sun each second at the top of Earth's atmosphere

solar power

Energy per unit time derived from the Sun

evaporation

liquid to gas

sublimation

solid to gas

condensation

gas to liquid

boiling

vaporization that takes place below the surface of a liquid

regelation

The process of melting under pressure and the subsequent refreezing when the pressure is removed.

heat pump

A device that transfers heat out of a cool environment and into a warm environment

latent heat of fusion

The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid

latent heat of vaporization

The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from liquid to gas

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