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Leishmania present three clinical pictures, cutaneous, visceral, and muco-cutaneous. Each of these are associated with their own genus and species. Name the genus-species associated with each clinical presentation.

Leishmania tropica - cutaneous leishmaniasis
Leishmania braziliensis - mucocutaneous leishmaniasis
Leishmania donovani - visceral leishmaniasis

Name the vector for leishmaniasis.

Sandflies

What is a common name of cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Iraq?

Badhdad Boil

Which cells are parasitized by leishmania?

Cells of the reticulo-endothelial system, macrophages.

True/False: Leishmania infections are easily diagnosed with a simple blood smear.

False. Traditional diagnosis has been Giemsa stained tissue smears, and skin scrapings.

True/False: Cattle and sheep are the reservoir hosts of Leishmaniasis.

False. Dogs and rodents are important reservoir hosts of Leishmania.

What is the name of the flagellated stage of the leishmania parasite that is injected when the vector takes a blood meal?

The promastigote (from mastix meaning whip - flagella in this case) is injected by the vector.

What is the name of the stage of the leishmania parasite that is taken up by macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system?

Amastigotes are found in the macrophages. (From mastix, meaning whip - flagella in this case). This form is without flagella thus the name amastigote - without whip or flagella.

If a soldier presents with a skin lesion that is difficult to heal, and the soldier has a travel history that includes a recent deployment to Iraq, what parasitic disease might you add to your differential diagnosis?

Cutaneous leishmaniasis.

What would be the specimen of choice for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis?

Skin scrapings.

Name the three clinical presentations of leishmania and the genus and species associated with each.

Leishmania tropica - cutaneous leishmaniasis
Leishmania braziliensis - muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis
Leishmania donovani - visceral leishmaniasis

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