This species of malaria is lethal and has developed drug resistance, making it more of a problem for man.
This species of malaria parasitizes RBCs and makes them"sticky". The RBCs containing mature parasites adhere to the walls of capillaries and mature parasites are difficult to detect in a peripheral blood smear. Often only ring forms and gametocytes are present.
This malarial parasite has a characteristic fever periodicity that produces a fever spike every 3 days (72 hours). This periodicity has led to a common clinical name. Name the genus and species as well as this clinical description of the fever cycle.
Plasmodium malariae, quartan malaria.
Name the genus and species of the malaria that is sometimes described as benign tertian malaria.
Name the genus and species of malaria that is sometimes described as malignant tertian malaria.
This species of malaria can infect liver cells and "hide" there, providing opportunities for a "relapse".
This species of malaria produces a sausage-shaped gametocyte that is diagnostic when seen in a blood smear.
This form of the malarial parasite is ingested by the mosquito in a blood meal.
This form of the parasite is injected by the mosquito while taking a blood meal.
A definitive host is the host in which the sexual stage of reproduction takes place. What is the definitive host of malaria?
The intermediate host of a parasite is the host where the asexual stages of the parasites live. What is the intermediate host of malaria?
What type of reproduction do malaria parasites use to multiply in the liver?
Asexual reproduction - one cell divides to make two, etc. Process is called schizogony. Progeny are called schizonts - from schizo - meaning split - these are "splitters".
How are soldiers protected against malaria?
Prophylactic doses of anti-malarial drugs can be given, use of insect repellent, mosquito netting while sleeping. Immunization is not effective.
What is the insect vector of malaria? What is the sex of the appropriate vector?
Malaria infected cells rupture and release the many progeny of the parasite - what is the name of the stage released from the red cell?
There are microgametocytes and macrogametocytes of malarial parasites. What is the difference in these two?
Macrogametocytes are analagous to the female, and microgametocytes are analagous to male. The union of a microgamete and a macrogamete produces an ookinete.
Describe a typical patient presentation for a person infected with malaria.
Recent travel history (outside USA). Complain of high fever (maybe with chills/maybe not).Headache, myalgia, arthralgia, vomiting, diarrhea. Physical findings of splenomegaly.Add malaria to your differential diagnosis.
True/False:I never have to consider malaria in the USA, since malaria is not endemic in the USA.
False. Remember that Plasmodium vivax can infect liver cells and the patient might "relapse" upon return to the USA from an endemic area. Be watchful of anyone with a travel history to a malarious area, especially if they did NOT take prophylactic drugs.
Plasmodium falciparum is more dangerous than the other species of malaria. Can you explain why?
Plasmodium falciparum will infect all red cells, regardless of age, where other species are more selective. P. falciparum is sometimes drug resistant, and the infection can progress to death if not treated.