central nervous system
contains the brain and spinal column
peripheral nervous system
includes all of the nerves through which the brain and spinal column communicate with body parts
three layers of protective membranes cover the brain and spinal column
protective layers of the brain, identified from outter to inner
outter layer of protective membrane in the brain
middle layer of protective membrane in the brain
inner layer of protective membrane in the brain; closest to the brain
inflammation of the meninges surrounding the spinal column and brain; symptoms are severe headache, may progress to delirium, convulsions, and coma
caused by Neisseria Meningitidis; symptoms are severe headache, may progress to delirium, convulsions, and coma.
excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain because of a blockage to normal outflow. May be congential or acquired.
congenital form of disease is easily identified at birth. The baby's head is enlarged due to "water on the brain."
inflammation of the brain, ususally caused by infected animals or mosquitos
inflammation of a nerve or nerves
a chronic neurogenic disease marked by sudden alterations in consciousness and frequently by convulsions, interference in electrical activity.
grand mal; petit mal
more serious form of epilepsy; severe head trauma may be responsible
less serious form of epilepsy
fatal if contracted and not treated; transfered by animal bit such as raccoon, fox, skunk, bat, or dog
chronic, degenerative disease, affects those 20-40 years old; idiopathic (no real cause); autoimmune disease; destroys the myelin sheaths around the nerves; damaged tissue becomes hardened.
occurs in older people, chronic, degenerative disease, no cure available.
"shaking palsy"; paralasis agitans
causes loss of memory; mood changes, and other mental disturbances; slow degeneration of cortisol neurons.
stress hormones in the cortex of the brain associated with memory.
rare deadly disease; caused by a prion
small protien particle
brain damnage either before birth or shortly thereafter; due to lack of oxygen; not progressive
transient ischemic attack (tia)
"mini stroke;" usually no permanent damage
circulatory interruption occurring in the brain, clots or small hemorrhages, causes ischemia and brain tumors.
decrease in blood flow
results from a blow to the head without actually suffering any brain injury; may have some dizziness or widespread loss of cerebral control and depressed vital signs.
a bruise often accompanied with swelling; injury to the brain where the skin has not been broken at the site of the injury
extravastion of blook within the skull, categorized by where it occurs
beteween the skull and the dura mater (outer).
between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
between the arachnoid and the pia mater, on the surface of the brain
attiquate disinfection, especially of the cranium
have ducts to deliever secretions to the body
Islets of Langerhans
heterocrine gland; performs both endocrine and exocrine
islets of langerhans
insulin and glucagons are produced and secreted into the blood stream.
pancreatic gland that secretes insulin and glucagon
pancreatic gland that secretes digestive enzymes
sugar diabetes; failure of the pancreas to secrete proper amounts of insulin resulting in the failure of normal carbohydrate metabolism; symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia; signs include hyperglycemia and glycosuria
complications include arteriosclerosis, vascular obstruction, gangrene
exess drinking (thirst)
excess eating (hunger)
excess sugar in blood
excess sugar in urine
juvinile onset diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes
maturity onset diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetes
located on the sella turcica ("turks saddle") of the sphenoid bone
often referred to as the master gland; the anterior portion produces somatotropin, aka human growth hormone
hyperfuction of pituitary gland (anterior lobe); occurs after ossification has been completed. "lion-faced" appearance, overproduction of growth hormone.
overproduction of growth hormone (somatropin), during growth, prior to ossificiation of the bones.
hypersecretion of the growth hormones during growth years; caused by heredity, nutritional deficiencies.
caused by disorder between pituitary glad and the kidneys. kidney function controlled by the release of antidiuretic hormone from pituitary gland; symptoms are extreme thurst and excessive urination, normal output is 1 L per day.
secretes a hormone called thyroxin, which has regulatory control over general body metabolism. causes an increase in hormones, and metabolism or a decrease in hormones and metabolism.
a congenital condition due to hypothroidism resulting in mental retardation.
myxedema (in children)
likely in adults; due to a Iodine deficiency; causes edematous skin, slow speech, puffiness of hands and feed, dryness of hair, mental apathy, drowsiness, and sensitivity to cold, decreased metabolism, obesity.
deficiency of thyroid
cretinism; hypothyroidism (myxedema)
affects women seven times more than men; typically ages 25-40; hyperplasia of eyeballs; increased heart rate, increased metabolism; weight loss; profuse sweating;
hyperplasia of eyeballs, often accompanied by a goiter
exophthalmic goiter; enlargement of the thyroid glad due to Iodine deficiency
located on posterior surface of the thyroid; parathromone regulates blood calcium levels.
excessive stimulation of muscles by nerves; nerve cells are irritable/ overactive.
increase in blood calcium levels; causes calcium to be drawn out of bones; can cause softening/deformity of bones; irregular heart beat
located on top of the kidneys
outter layer of the adrenal gland; controlled by the pituitary
inner layer of the adrenal gland
underproduction of cortisol and aldosterone (hormones), bronze discoloration (light complexsions) or milky white patches (dark complexions); causes decreased book pressure, emaciation
requires the use of weak formaldehyde solution
iatrogenic disorder. overproduction of cortisol, increased blook sugar level, obesity, "moon-shaped" faces; muscular weakness
due to adverse medical personnel
caused my meningococcemia; causes numerous skin hemorages; fulminating disease
spherical shaped bacteria
meningoccus in blod
sudden and severe onset usually resulting in death.
inflammation of the pancreas