Sociology 111

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byu, sociology, 111, freshman

Sociological Perspective

everything that defines us has been socially constructed

social structure

patterns of what we see - class distinction, etc.

social institutions

media, family, school, peers, etc.

social reproduction

each new generation is being taught social norms

Macro

social institutions and social structures

Micro

individuals and social interaction

Popular View

individual characteristics lead to poverty (lazy, etc.)

Culture of Poverty

some political-econ. forces ->poverty-> <-ind. Characteristics

Situational

political-economic forces->poverty->ind. Characteristics

Structural

political-economic forces->poverty (no characteristic relationship)

Colonialism

establish economic colonies to exploit people and resources from benefit of "mother" country

Maximalist

emphasizes difference, attributes it to biology/early socialization/both, distinctive cultures for men and women, differences are just biological between genders

Minimalist

men and women are essentially similar, differences are relatively superficial and socially constructed, dismisses significance of difference

Race

socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of society consider important

Ethnicity

group of people who share a common ancestry and culture

1616

Pocahontas (social status)

1775

Johann Blumenbach (race-Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, etc)

1781

Jefferson (black inferiority)

1790

race of first census (free or enslaved)

1862

Homestead Act (white settlers, reservations)

1887

Jim Crow (segregation)

1889

Ripley "The Races of Europe" (immigration and whiteness)

1922

courts decide who white (common understanding of white man)

1935

Social Security Act, Wagner Act (protect American workers and exclude non-whites)

1954

legal segregation ends (Brown vs. Board of Education, civil rights act)

1967

interracial marriage (Virginian couple)

2000

census allows more than one race

Discrimination

unfair action

Prejudice

a rigid and unfair generalization about and entire category of people

Racism

prejudice and discrimination based on race

Stereotype

exaggerated description applied to every person in some category

De facto

actual segregation but not necessarily by lawful authority

De jure

legal segregation, segregation by law

Genocide

the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a group because of their race or ethnicity

Population transfer

forcing a minority group to move

Internal colonialism

the policy of economically exploiting minority groups

Segregation

the policy of keeping racial-ethnic groups apart

Assimilation

the process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture

Multiculturalism/pluralism

a philosophy or political policy that promotes ethnic difference

socialization

the process of learning what group one is in and how to act accordingly

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