diarthorsis, synarthrosis, and amphiarthrosis
what are the functional classes of joints?
which functional joint class is freely moveable?
which functional joint class is slightly moveable?
which functional joint class is immoveable?
a fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense irregular fibrous connective tissue.
a fibrous joint, the connective tissue is typically arranged either as a bundle or as a sheet.
type of synovial joint, a rounded or pointed surface on one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament.
contain a joint cavity, are freely moveable, articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, have ligaments holding the joint together
characteristics of a synovial joint.
what is made of dense regular connective tissue
bursae and synovial fluid
what is there to reduce friction in a synovial joint?
range of motion
refers to the span, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of a joint can be moved.
along what plane does flextion and extension occur?
standing on your heals. bend your foot at the ankle in the direction of you foots superior surface.
occurs in your clavicles at your acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints when you cross your arms in front of your body
degenerative joint disease in which joint cartilage is gradually lost due to a combination of aging, obesity, wear and abrasion of the joints.
an autoimmune disease that affects the joints
characterized by sodium urate crystals being deposited in the soft tissues of joints
results from a forceful wrenching or twisting of a joint that tears or stretches its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones.
a muscle or muscle and tendon is stretched or partially torn
disorders is characterized by the wasting away of muscles due to the progressive loss of myofibrils
tennis elbow/ tenosynovitis
condition in which the tendon sheaths, tendons, and synovial membranes of the elbow are inflamed
increase in disameter of muscle fibers
abnormal contractions fo skeletal muscle may be caused by holding a position for a prolonged period
abnormal contractions of skeletal muscle is caused by a twitch of an entire motor unit and is visible under the skin
abnormal contractins of skeletal muscle is caused by a single muscle fiber, is spontaneous, and is not visible under the skin
a period of sustained skeletal muscle contraction in which individual twitches cannot be detected
inflamed during ;painful heel syndrome
protusion of an organ through a structure that normally contains it
anterior cruciate ligament
limits hyperextension of the knee and prevents the anterior sliding of the tibia on the femur.
posterior cruciate ligament
prevents the posterior sliding of the tibia when the knee is flexed.
what functional class of joint does a suture fit into?
what is an example of syndesmosis?
decreased range of motion
what can happen if you stop using a limb?
hormone stimulates changes that lead to increased range fo motion in the pubic symphysis
moving blood throughout the body, generating heat through contractions, stabilizing the movement of joints, promoting the movement of body structures
functions of muscle tissue
property of muscle that gives it the ability to stretch without damage
outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle
means to shorten or come together
the ability to stretch
synaptic end bulbs
synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine are found suspended in the sytosol
arranged in rows near the contractile muscle proteins
thread-like contractile organelles of a skeletal muscle fiber
used for storing calcium
i band and a band
regions of a sarcomere contain thin filaments
tropomyosin and troponin
reulatory proteins can be found in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle fibers
used to reinforce the sarcolemma and to help transmit the tension generated by the sarcomeres to the tendons.
during muscle contraction by the sliding filament mechanism, thin filaments are pulled towards this. used for actual muscle contraction.
calcium ions, phosphorus, and ATP
skeletal muscle contraction will continue to occur as long as the following chemicals are available in the cytosol of the muscle fiber
maintains smooth muscle tone its prolonged presence in the muscles cell's cytosol
acetylcholine must cross to stimulate skeletal muscle contraction
consists of a somatic moter neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates
the period of lost excitability in skeletal muscle fibers
formed during muscle contraction when tyosin on the thick filaments binds to actin on the thin filaments
space between the synaptic end bulbs and the muscle
what is relased into the synaptic cleft?
where the nervous sytem and the muscular system connect
axon of neuron to the sarcolemma to the t-tubules
the action potentional sequence that excites the skeletal muscle contraction order is what?
plasma membrane of the muscle cell
weak sarcolemmas are in what disease?
creatine phosophate, anaerobic cellualr respiration, aerobic respiration
three ways to produce ATP
slow oxidative fiber
least powerful type of skeletal muscle fiber
fast oxidative glycolytic
microscopic structures is only found in the cardiac muscle tissue
torn sarcolemmas, damaged myofibrils, sore muscles, disrupted z-discs
exercise-induced muscle damage
dehydration, kidney dysfunction, decrease in the body's own synthesis of creatine
common side effect of creating supplementation
sterility, baldness, diminished testosterone secretion, and atrophy of testes
side effect of anabolic steroid use by male athletes
sterility, facial hair growth, menstrual irregularities, and deepening of voice
side effects of anabolic steroid use by female athletes
smooth muscle tone is maintained by what?
wasting away of muscles is what?
an increase in diameter of muscle fibers
most muscles cross atleast one _____.
when the effort supplied exceeds load
when will motion occur in a muscle?
the attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone
the attachment of a muscle to a movable bone
the muscle that serves as the "prime mover" during a movement
works by stabalizzing the origin of the agonist so that it can act more efficiently
muscle that works opposite the prime mover (agonist)
muscle that helps the prime mover
muscle that decreases the size of an opening
generates teh facial expression of pouting
contraction of this muscle presses the cheeks against the teeth and lips as would be observed in whistling, blowing or sucking
moves the mandible
insertion is found on the clavicle and acromion process of the scapula within the pectoral girdle
flexor carpi radials
used to flex and abduct the hand at the wrist joint
flexes the little toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint
moves the upper arm
functions to elevate the hyoid bone and help press the tongue against the roof of the mouth during swallowing
tensor facia latae, gluteus maximus
insertion on the iliotibial tract (IT tract)
external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis
abdominal muscles in order from superior to deep
superior rectus, lateral rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique
muscles that move the eyeball
rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus laterlis, vastus intermedius
quadriceps muscle group
in the abdomen
where is the internal oblique