Chapter 8: joints

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A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.
A) syndesmosis
B) suture
C) synchondrosis
D) gomphosis

D) gomphosis

The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.
A) tend to run parallel to one another
B) are also called collateral ligaments
C) prevent hyperextension of the knee
D) assist in defining the range of motion of the leg

C) prevent hyperextension of the knee

Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.
A) attach tendons
B) produce red blood cells (hemopoiesis)
C) provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
D) form the synovial membrane

C) provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of
movement is a ________.
A) suture
B) syndesmosis
C) symphysis
D) gomphosis

C) symphysis

On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?
A) symphysis
B) synchondrosis
C) pivot
D) syndesmosis

D) syndesmosis

Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where
friction develops are called ________.
A) menisci
B) bursae
C) ligaments
D) tendons

B) bursae

Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________.
A) amphiarthroses
B) synarthroses
C) diarthroses
D) synovial joints

A) amphiarthroses

________ are cartilaginous joints.
A) Syndesmoses
B) Sutures
C) Synchondroses
D) Gomphoses

C) Synchondroses

The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ________ joint.
A) hinge
B) plane
C) pivot
D) condyloid

B) plane

The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the
movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________.
A) cruciate ligaments
B) patellar ligaments
C) anterior ligaments
D) tibial collateral ligaments

A) cruciate ligaments

Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ________.
A) flexion
B) extension
C) hyperextension
D) circumduction

C) hyperextension

In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?
A) Immovable joints are called amphiarthroses.
B) All synovial joints are freely movable.
C) Synarthrotic joints are slightly movable.
D) In cartilaginous joints, a joint cavity is present.

B) All synovial joints are freely movable

Synarthrotic joints ________.
A) are found at the junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis of growing bone
B) are cartilaginous joints
C) permit essentially no movement
D) have large joint cavities

C) permit essentially no movement

Fibrous joints are classified as ________.
A) pivot, hinge, and ball and socket
B) symphysis, sacroiliac, and articular
C) hinge, saddle, and ellipsoidal
D) sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

D) sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.
A) hyaline cartilage
B) synovial membranes
C) fibrocartilage
D) tendon sheaths

A) hyaline cartilage

Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following
statements is true about this fluid?
A) It contains enzymes only.
B) It contains lactic acid.
C) It contains hyaluronic acid.
D) It contains hydrochloric acid.

C) It contains hyaluronic acid.

Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?
A) amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility
B) interphalangeal joints
C) joints that permit angular movements
D) cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

D) cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

What are menisci?
A) cavities lined with cartilage
B) small sacs containing synovial fluid
C) semilunar cartilage pads
D) tendon sheaths

C) semilunar cartilage pads

Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?
A) Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
B) Gliding movements allow flexibility of the upper limbs.
C) Gliding movements are multiaxial.
D) An example of a gliding movement is nodding one's head.

A) Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.

What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane
called?
A) abduction
B) adduction
C) inversion
D) dorsiflexion

A) abduction

The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________.
A) hands
B) feet
C) arms
D) hands and the feet

B) feet

The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.
A) nonaxial
B) uniaxial
C) biaxial
D) multiaxial

D) multiaxial

Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as ________.
A) biaxial movement
B) flexion
C) uniaxial rotation
D) extension

C) uniaxial rotation

Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________.
A) common due to the weight bearing the hip endures
B) rare because of the ligament reinforcement
C) common in all people who are overweight
D) rare because the rotator cuff stabilizes the hip joint

B) rare because of the ligament reinforcement

Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?
A) anular
B) ulnar collateral
C) radial collateral
D) iliofemoral

A) anular

Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?
A) the patellar ligament
B) the medial patellar retinacula
C) the lateral patellar retinacula
D) the extracapsular ligament

A) the patellar ligament

Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is
(are) damaged as a result?
A) oblique popliteal and extracapsular ligament
B) suprapatellar
C) arcuate popliteal and the posterior cruciate
D) medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate

D) medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate

Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of
arthritis?
A) bursitis
B) tendonitis
C) osteoarthritis
D) rheumatoid arthritis

C) osteoarthritis

What can cause gouty arthritis?
A) excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints
B) a disorder in the body's immune system resulting in destruction of joints
C) a thickening of the synovial membrane and a decrease in fluid production
D) a bacterial infection in the bursae

A) excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints

Pointing the toes is an example of ________.
A) circumduction
B) plantar flexion
C) pronation
D) protraction

B) plantar flexion

Which of the following is a true statement?
A) The head of the humerus articulates with the acromion process.
B) The greater tubercle of the humerus articulates at the coracoid process of the scapula.
C) The rotator cuff is responsible for the flexible extensions at the elbow joint.
D) The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.

D) The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.

Multiaxial joints of the body include ________.
A) the knee and elbow
B) the ankle and wrist
C) the hip and shoulder
D) intercarpal and intertarsal joints

C) the hip and shoulder

Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are
characteristics of what type of joint?
A) suture
B) synchondrosis
C) symphysis
D) hinge joint

D) hinge joint

Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________.
A) the patellar ligament extending from femur to patella
B) lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements
C) cruciate ligaments, which help secure the articulating bones together
D) the oblique popliteal crossing the knee anteriorly

B) lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

Which of the following is a correct statement about development of joints?
A) Joints develop in parallel with bones.
B) By the end of the fourth week, fetal synovial joints resemble adult joints.
C) All fibrous joints are in the adult form by the time of birth.
D) Joints develop independent of bone growth.

A) Joints develop in parallel with bones

An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.
A) the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends
B) the radius and ulna along its length
C) between the vertebrae
D) between the humerus and the glenoid cavity

B) the radius and ulna along its length

Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?
A) They allow movement only in one plane.
B) They allow movement in several planes.
C) They occur only between bones with flat articular processes.
D) They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.

D) They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.

Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that
articulate to form a saddle joint.
A) The scaphoid of the index finger and the triquetrum of the middle finger.
B) The trapezium of the ring finger and the capitate of the fourth finger.
C) The scaphoid of the middle finger and lunate of the index finger.
D) The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.

D) The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal

Tendon sheaths ________.
A) act as friction-reducing structures
B) are lined with dense irregular connective tissue
C) form channels for tendons
D) help anchor the tendon to the muscle

A) act as friction-reducing structures

Which of the following is not a part of the synovial joint?
A) joint cavity
B) tendon sheath
C) articular cartilage
D) articular capsule

B) tendon sheath

Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces of
diarthroses in contact?
A) structure and shape of the articulating bone
B) arrangement and tension of the muscles
C) strength and tension of joint ligaments
D) number of bones in the joint

D) number of bones in the joint

Turning the foot medially at the ankle would be called ________.

inversion

Moving your jaw forward, causing an underbite, is called ________.

protraction

A ________ is a fluid-filled sac a tendon slides over

bursa

The joint between the frontal and parietal bones is called a ________ joint.

suture

Why are epiphyseal plates considered temporary joints?

Once long bone growth in length is complete, the cartilage of the epiphyseal plates
ossifies to become a permanent synostosis

Using the functional classification, a freely movable joint would be called a ________ joint

diarthrosis

The hip joint, like the shoulder joint, is a ________ joint.

ball-and-socket

8) Partial dislocation of a joint is called a ________.

subluxation

The type of joint between the carpal and the first metacarpal is a ________ joint

saddle

Bending the elbow: ________, ________.

hinge, flexion

Turning head side to side: ________, ________.

pivot, rotation

Lowering your arm to your side: ________, ________.

ball and socket, adduction

Turning the sole of foot medially: ________, ________.

plane, inversion

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