Essential Biology: Chapter 8: Cell Reproduction

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33 terms

chromosome

rod shaped structures made of DNA and protein

histone

the DNA in eukaryotic cells wrapped around tightly around the proteins

chromatid

a half of a chromosome, so there are two chromatids to each chromosome

centromere

the point where chromatids are attached

chromatin

the less tightly wound DNA-protein complex where transcription and translation occurs

sex chromosome

chromosome that determines the sex of the organism , and may contain genes for other characteristics

autosome

all chromosomes other than sex chromosomes

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same size, shape, and genetic information

karyotype

photomicrograph of trhe chromosomes in a normal dividing cell found in a human

diploid

cells that have two sets of chromosomes, each has two copies of each autosome and two sex chromosomes

haploid

sperm and egg cells, which only contain one set of chromosomes

binary fission

the division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells

mitosis

creates new cells with genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell

asexual reproduciton

production of offspring from one parent

meiosis

reduces the chromosome number by half in the new cells to create gametes

gamete

haploid reproductive cells

interphase

the time between cell division, which is one phase of the cell cycle, but has three stages- G1, S, and G2

cytokinesis

the division of a cell's cytoplasm

prophase

the first phase of mitosis and meiosis in cell cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes, the dissolution of the nuclear envelope, and formation of the spindle fibers

spindle fiber

made of microtubules and radiate from the centrosomes in preparation for metaphase

metaphase

the second phase of mitosis and meiosis during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator

anaphase

the third phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the spidle fibers cause the chromosomes to separate

telophase

the final phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes, the chromosomes decondense and the spindle fiber dissociate

cell plate

occurs only in plant cells- the vesicles from the Golgi apparatus join together at the midline of the dividing cell

synapsis

the pairing of homologous chromosomes only in meiosis 1 (prophase 1), not in mitosis

tetrad

the name for each pair of homologous chromosomes

crossing- over

the process of portions of chromatids breaking off and attaching to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome

gentic recombination

the process of crossing-over that permits for the exchange of genetic materical between maternal and paternal chromosomes; results in a new mixture of genetic material

independent assortment

the random separation of the homologous chromosomes, resulting in genetic variation

spermatogenesis

the production of sperm cells

oogenesis

the production of mature egg cells, or ova

polar body

extra three products of meiosis that eventually degenerate

sexual reproduction

the production of offspring through meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg cell

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