Discuss the main social events of the postwar era from 1945 to 1960
Moved to the suburbs.
Started to have more children.
Economy boomed, appliances started to sell.
New consumer products-frozen food, cigarettes.
Conformity in the suburbs, Same material possessions.
Explain the cause of the US post-WW2 economic boom
American consumers finally had a chance to indulge after the depression.
-People had a lot of personal savings by the end of the war.
The Cold War provided the extra stimulus.
-The Marshall Plan and foreign aid programs financed a heavy export trade.
Describe why the US economy moved forward from 1947 to 1950
The baby boom and the growth of suburbs were stimulants to the consumer goods industries.
Manufacturers turned out more refrigerators, washing machines, and dishwashers.
Automobile industry thrived, two car families became more common.
Explain the results of postwar suburbanization
Divided the "middle class" into different sectors.
Life in the suburbs depended on the automobile.
Malls were made, commuting to work.
Families spent a lot of time together.
Extended family became remote figures to the family.
Women still thought of as housewives.
Organized religion flourished. There was a rise in church attendence.
THe increase in the amount of school aged children provided the need for more schools.
Wanted education reforms.
Describe the results of the launching of Sputnik
Increased the national defense budget.
Sped up the American missile program.
Appointed MIT President Killian to the presidental science advisor.
Created the Presiden't Science Advisory Committee.
NAtional Defense Education Act helped schools improve and broaden their science and math offerings.
Creation the the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. New civilian agency to oversee the nation's space program.
Describe the accomplishments of Truman's Fair Deal
Medical insurance for all Americans.
Fair Employment Practices Commision to open up employment for African Americans. This was closed.
Federal aid to education in order to help the states handle the postwar baby boom.
The only real success was expanding Social Security to cover more Americans and raising minimum wage.
Discuss Eisenhower's legislative program
Major goal was to restore calm and tranquility to a badly divided nation. He had no commitment to social change or economic reform.
Intent on balancing budget.
No plans to dismantle the New Deal.
Wanted to keep military spending in check, encourage promote initiative as possible, and to reduce federal activities to the minimum.
Conservative to money, liberal to human beings.
List Eisenhower's legislative accomplishments
.Signed bills on Social Security. Raised minimum wage to a dollar. Added four million workers to those eligible for unemployment benefits. State and local govt deal with schools.
Highway Act of 1956- funds for a forty one thousand mile highway system. High fund raised by taxes on vehicle items.
Explain the role of the Supreme Court and the President in desegregating the schools.
Upheld the seperate but equal policy in Supreme Court in Plessy v. Fergusen. Then, in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Supereme court declared that seperate educational facilities and inheritly unequal.
Led to civil rights legislation.Created a permenant Commission for Civil Rights. Federal efforts aimed a protecting the right to vote.
Describe the main actions of the civil rights movement in the 1950's
Led the Montgomery bus boycott. Ended in victory, Alabama segregating seating was unconstitutional.
Founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to direct the crusade against segregation. Drew on teachings of Gandhi.
Passive resistance- refused to move after being denied service in store. Kneel ins at church, wade ins at pools.
Led the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
Explain why Kennedy won the presidential election in 1960
He took full advantage of all of his opportunities. He appealed to the rank and file in primaries, he also chose Lyndon Johnson of Texas as his running mate to block out Nixon's control of the South. He symbolized youth, energy, and ambition.
Describe Kennedy's defense policy
First goal was to build up the nation's armed forces. Construction of an awesome nuclear arsenal that included 1000 Minuteman solid fuel ICBMs and 32 Polaris submarines with 656 missiles.
Developed plans to add five combat ready army divisions, three tactical air wings, and a ten-division strategic reserve.
Expanded the Special Forces unit in North Carloina and insisted that it adopt a green beret as a symbol of its elite status.
New policy of flexible response. Could choose amoung several defense plans.
Describe the results of the Second Berlin Crisis in 1962
They settled for a stalemate . Began the contruction of the Berlin Wall to stop the intelligence from going to the West.
Soviets signed a seperate peace treaty that didn't effect US occupation rights. Neitther side could claim a victory.
Describe Kennedy's strategy for containing Communism
Financial and technical assitance to help Third Worl Countries achieve economic moderation and stable free governments.
He formed the idealistic Peace Corps and the ambitious Alliance for Progress- economic aid program for Latin America.
He relied on the Green Berets to beat down communism.
Gave aid to Diem against North Vietnam.
Evaluate Kennedy's Cuban policy of 1961
He decided to proceed with the Bay of Pigs invasion to overthrow Castro. Five hundred died, and the rest had to surrender.
He ended up harassing the Castro regime, imposing an economic blockage, supported raids by exile groups from Florida, and allowed the CIA to experiment with plots to kill Castro.
Describe the Russian and US actions in the Cuban missle crisis
Soviet began a massive arms builup in Cuba to protect Castro from an American invasion.
Kennedy had stopped direct U-2 overflights of Cuba.
Found out about the missles.
Kennedy decided to proclaim a quaruntine of Cuba to prevent the arrival of new misslies and threaten a nuclear confrontation to force the removal of those already there.
If the Russians wouldn't coroprate, the US would invcade Cuba and take the missles by force.
Then, Russia agreed to remove the missiles if Kennedy promised to not invade Cuba.
Describe Kennedy's civil rights program
Tried to expand voting rights to blacks.
Appointed blacks to high office positions.
Convinced the ICC to ban segregation in all bus and train stations.
He sponsered civil rights legislatation providing equal acccess to all public accommodations as well as an extension of voting rights for African Americans.
Name the Kennedy programs Johnson pushed through Congress
Liberal amendments that strengthened the Bill in the House.
1964 Civil Rights Act made illegal the segregation of blacks in public facitities, established an Equal Opportunity Commision to lessen racial discrimination in employment, protexted the voting rights of blacks.
He added gender to the prohibition of discrimination in Title VII of the act.
List the legislative accomplishments on Johnson's Great Society
He gave helath care and education top priority. He settled for Medicare which manfated health insurance under the Social Security program for people over 65.
Medicaid for the younger people.
The Elementary and Secondary Efuacation Act of 1965 provided one billion in federal aid.
Voting Rights Act of 1965 which banned literacy tests in states.
Two new cabinet departments, acts to provide highway safety, clean air and water, higher education money, war on poverty, immigration reform policy.
Explain the motivation and results of the Gulf of Tonkin resolution
Wanted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to demonstrate to North Vietnam the American determination to defend South Vietnam at any costs. He also wanted to preempt the Vietnam issue from his Republican opponent.
Results: Voted for the Guld of Tonkin Resolution. He could use as much force as possible. Ended up declaring war on Vietnam.
Explain why Johnson pushed the US into large-scale involvement in South Vietnam
This was for a series of steps designed primarily to prevent a North Vietnamese victory.
Wanted American air attacks to block North Vietnamese infiltration routes, make Hanoi pay a heavy price for its role, and lift the morale of South Vietnam.
Air strikes didn't work.
Discuss the focus of the student revolt of the 1960's
Free speech to act out against the Vietnam war.
Explain the fundamental change in the civil rights movement in the mid- 1960's
Wanted economic equality.
Raised the expectations of of urban blacks for improvement.
Rage and destruction. Also had many raids.
Mobs started to kill people. Attacked shops and stores.
This was extremism.
Describe the events and results of the Tet Offensive in 1968
This was the decisive event in breaking the statemate in Vietnam and driving Johnson from office.
The used deceptive tactics to begfan a prolonged siege of an American marine base. They used this tactic at Tet as a suprise attack in the populated cities. The US repelled the attack. It was the turning point of the Vietname War.
Communists held on to most rural areas and had scored an impressive political victory. The were winning the war. This costed Johnson the presidential victory.
Explain the campaign and the results of the presidential election of 1968
Johnson removed himself from the race.
McCarthy and Kennedy were the antiwar candidate for the democrats. Humphrey was the pro war candidate. Kennedy ended up being assassinated.
Nixon was the Republican nominee.
Wallace ended up cutting into the Democratic nominee.
Nixon won the election.
Discuss the domestic policies of Richard Nixon.
Adopted affirmative action- hiring of minority contractors. Also expanded it to women. Approved the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for reducing workplace injuries. Oversaw the establishment of the EPA to watch environmental affairs. Signed the Clean Air Act. Supported automatic cost of living increases so Social Security so that inflation wouldn't effect people living on Social Security.
Discuss the foreign policies of Richard Nixon regarding dentente
Planned to use American trade to induce Soviet cooperation while at the same time improving relations with China. Detente is a relaxation of trension.
Strategetic Arms Limitation Talks- arms control pact with Russia.Two documents signed- limited superpowers to two hunfred antiballistic missiles, froze the number of offensive ballistic missile for a five year period.
Detail Nixon's plan to end the Vietnam Wat
Gradually withdraw American troops
Training of South Vietnamese to take over the combat role,
Hard line in negotiations with Hanoi.
Describe the key events in the Watergate Scandal leading to Nixon's resignation
He hired people to investigate leaks of information. Ended up spying on Nixon's democratic opponents and engage in political dirty tricks. Five of the "plumbers" were arrested at the Watergate office.
He personally ordered the cover up. This garunteed the reelection.
One of the plumbers who was being sentenced to jail revieled this scandal.
The Senate ordered a committee to look into this.
Explain the causes of the energy crisis
October war. OPEC announced a five percent cut in oil production until Israel surrendered the lands it had taken.
Once Nixon gave an aid package for Israel, Saudi Arabia cut off the supplies of oil to the US.
Increase in oil resulted because of the embargo.
Describe the US energy policy dealing with the energy shortage
Proposed a tax cut to stimulate consumer consumption.
Continued federal deficits and relatively high interest rates.
Strengthened the Clean Air Act.
Explain why the Ford presidency was unsuccessful
He pardoned Nixon's actions with the Watergate scandal.
He also revealed info that the CIA was trying to kill foreign leaders.
He opposed democratic measures like aid to education, and control over strip mining.
He veto a lot of bills.
Explain why Carter proved to be a failure as president
He had no political philosophy, no sense of direction. Stated he was a populist.Welfare program lost support. Carter was unwilling to take political risks. He blamed his failure on people's lack of support. Wasn't a bold president.
Describe Carter's Middle East policy
Camp David accords. A framework for negotiations reater than an actual peace settlement. Gradual return of the Sinai to Egypt. The fate of the Palestinians, Arb inhabitants of the West bank was unsettled.
Describe Carter's Iranian crisis
Carter allowed the Iranian shah to recieve medical treatment in the US. This caused Iranians to denounce the US. They took the US embassy and took fifty three prisioners. Authorized a rescue mission which failed. Helicopters broke down.
Explain why Reagan won the presidential election of 1980
He hammered away at the state of the economy claiming that Carter was the source of the inflation so workers weren
t really earning money. He also accused Carter of allowing the Soviets to outstrip the US militarily and promised a massive buildup of American forces if he was elected. He also said that the American people have been no better off since Carter was elected.
Explain the main principles of Reagan's supply-side economics
He believed that the private sector, if encourage by tac cuts, would shift its resourves from tac shelters to productive investent, leading to an economic boom that would provide enough new income to ofset the lost revenue.
Describe how Reagan hoped to reduce government spending
He cut into many social services such as food staps, reducing public service jobs, student loans, and support for mass transit. He also trimmed taxes. Five percent tax cut.
Describe Reagan's domestic accomplishments
Opened federal land to coal and timber production.
Adopted policies to reduce air pollution and increase safety. Couldn't cut back on entitlement programs that were main source of the deficit like SS. Low regard for women's rights.
Explain how Reagan restored US standing and respect in the world
He decided to strengthen America's defenses and recapture world supremacy from the Soviet Union.
Describe the basic tenet of Reagan's foreign policy
He embarked on military expansion.
He started to increase defense spending.
Developed new weapons.
Soviet Union was a deadly enemy.
Describe Reagan's Latin American foreign policy
US normally supported right wing diicators rather than leftist groups that raised the radical issues like land reform and redistribution of wealth.Reversed the policy og American economic aid to Nicuagua.
Passed to Boland Amendment prohibiting any US agency from spending money in Central America.
Describe the Reagan foreign policy toward the Soviet Union in 1987-88
Change of leadership in Soviet Union.
Gorbachev wanted to improve US relations with the Soviet Union.
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty by which Reagan and Gorbachev agreed to remove and destroy all intermediate range missile in Europe.
Explain the factors involved in the 1988 election
Republican's hold on the Sunbelt, Democrats owned the House.
Describe the main elements of Bush's foreign policy
Tried to maintain a working relationship with China. He wanted to preserve American influence with the Chinese gov't. Had a cautious approach. He facilitated the reunification of Germany, offered economic assistance to Russia. They agreed to reduce nuclear warheads to less than ten thousand.
Describe the events leading to US foreign policy success in Kuwait
Persuaded Saudi Arabia to allow troops in. Prevense Saddam drom advancing past Kuwait.
Formed an international coalition to condemn the Iraqi invasion. Needed the support of the Soviet Union. This became Desert Storm. Then he unleashed an ariel attack on Iraq.
Then there was a ground assault. He haulted the adcance and agreed to an armistice with Iraq.
Describe the major changes in the American population from 1970 to 2002
Started to migrate South to Texas, California, and Florida. NE and MW started to losing people. Texs ended up passing New ork as the sendon most populous state. S and W ezpanded by twenty percent, compared to the six percent for the NE and MW. Increased urbanization.
Name the points o forigin for most immigrants to the US between 1970 and 2002
Latin America and Asia.
Describe the general characteristics of Hispanic Americans in 2002
Relativly youthful, high fertility rate, relatively poor, employed in low paying positions as manual laborers, domestic servants, and migrant workers. Had a lack of education.
Describe the campaign and results of the presidential election of 1992
The recession was persistent which hindered the Bush administration. Unemployment persisted. It was Clinton vs. Bush. Clinton won.
Discuss Clinton's domestic policy in his first term
Federal budget called for tax increases and spending cuts. He had a deficit reduction. NAFTA was passed so that they had a free trade plan that united the US, Mexico, and Canada without tariff barriers. Also attempted to revamp the health care system.
Discuss the campaign and results of the presidential election of 1996
There were a lot of scandals that popped up during Clinton's administration. Then there was a a claim that he sexually harassed a girl. Though, Clinton won the election.Dole was the Republican candidate.
Discuss the Clinton impeachment crisis
He ended up being impeached due to the Monica Lewinsky affair. He was charged with misconduct in office.50 to 50 with a perjury charge. Judge declared that he was acquitted with the charges.
Describe the presidential election of 2000
It was between Bush and Al Gore. Nadar was the Green Party Ticket who complicated the election. This was a narrow victory. Bush won.
Describe George W. Bush's war on terrorism.
Focused on securing the US from any further terrorist attacks. Approved a new Department of Homeland Security. This combined the Customs Bureau, the Coast Guard, the INS, and other government bureaus.
Focused on homeland security by the safety of airline travel. Airlines replaced cockpit doors with secure barriers and permitted armed air marshals to ride amount the passengers. US violated the principles of individual freedom. Also, Ashcroft under the Patriot Act, conducted a crackdown on possible terrorists detaining many Muslim Americans.