supreme military dictators, they held real power in Edo
landholding warrior lords, helped shoguns control Japan,
Japanese family who siezed power in 1603, the reimposed centralized fuedalism, closed Japan to foreigners and forbade Japanese people to travel overseas; the only window to the world was Nagasaki where Dutch were allowed limited trade
for over 200 years Japan was isolated, internal commerce expanded, agricultural production grew and bustling cities sprang up.these changes strained Japanese society. peasants suffered heavy taxes. the govt responded by trying to revive old ways(farming over commerce and praising tradiional values) by the 1800s shoguns were no longer strong leaders.
rested their place at the bottom of the social ladder. no matter how rich they got, they had no political power.
By the mid 1800s, why did so many groups of people in Japan feel discontented?
Every class suffered economically, and some politically even if they had money.
commanded a fleet of well armed ships in 1853 to Tokyo Bay. He carried a letter from Millard Filmore(the current president at this time) that demanded Japan open up its ports to diplomatic and commercial exchange.
Treaty of Kanagawa
in 1854 the shogun Iesada agreed to open up two Japanese ports to American ships, though not for trade. the united states soon won trade and other rights, along with some of Europe
1867 a discontented daimyo and samurai led a revolt that unseated the shogun and restored the 15 year old emporer, later called Meiji, he moved from the old imperial capitol to the shogun's palace in Edo, which was later renamed Tokyo
a period that lasted from 1868 to 1912, major turnign point in Japanese history. Meiji reformers, rulers in the emporers name, were determined to strenthen Japan, their motto was "A rich country, and a strong military.". The emporer supported and embodied the reforms. new leaders tryed to prevent Japan from having to give into Western ways and they furthered Japans knowledge of western industrial techniques.
How did Japan react when it was forced to accept unequal treaties?
They felt humiliated by the treaties. Japanese people bitterly criticized the shogun for not taking a strong stand against the foreigners.
made up of the German government, used in 1889, it set forth the principle that all citizens were equal before the law. like the german system, althogh this gave the emporer autocratic(absolute power)
legislature, made up of one elected house and one house appointed by the emporer, voting right were sharply limited.
Powerful industrial and banking families
All of the people share a common culture and language
Peninsula located at the crossroads of East Asia that was constantly pressured by Russia, China, and Japan; forced to eventually accept unequal treaties. "The Hermit Kingdom"
First Sino-Japanese War
War between Japan and China after Japan had started to extend into Korea which had been a tributary state for China
War between the Russians and the Japanese after Russia had challened Japan's growing power over Korea
People from France and other European countries who try to convert others. Killed by the Vietnamese who felt pressured by the growing Western influence
The French holdings of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
The King of Siam from 1851 to 1868 who had much knowledge of Western power, so was able to escape becoming a European colony by negotiating and making agreements in the unequal treaties
Son of Mongkut who, along with Mongkut, reformed the government, hired Western teachers, abolished slavery, modernized the army, and gave women some rights as to who they would marry. Thought of removing the unequal treaties
War between Spain and the U.S. that broke out in 1898 over Cuba's attempts to free itself from Spain
Hawaiian queen who tried to reduce foreign influence but was overthrowen by her planters in 1893
Constitutional Act of 1791
Canada was split into two provinces, French and British
Differences between French and British People living in Canada
religion, Catholic vs. Anglican
British official who helps pass the act of union, integrating to provinces into one canada, in 1840
British North American Act
1867, allows Canada self rule, Canada adopts parliament, but maintains close ties with Britain
people of native american and french descent, who resisted canadian expansion into the West
original people of Australia, also known as the Kooris displaced by British settlement
stone age culture, living in nomadic tribes, used boomerangs, tribal paintings, very short in height, play musical instrument called digerido
Captain of the British navy, "discovered" Australia and New Zealand in 1770
criminals were sent to there to be punished, criminals were freaked out when they were moved there bcuz they were used to city life
Australia: Reasons for Immigration
Britain offered tools and land. sheep-herding, gold rush in 1880's, escaping society in Europe
Commonwealth of Australia
Britain helps Australia establish self-rule in 1901. Australia was a progressive nation in allowing women the right to vote and the secret ballot
Discovered by James Cook in the 1770's; main reason for emmigration was to convert the local population (Maori)
The indigenous people of New Zealand who fought a series of battles, known as the Maori Struggle against colonists. settled farmers; tribal tattoos
The Maori Struggle
As settlers came in, wars raged between them and the Maori. Population dwindled after the series of battles
Loyalty to a local area, associated especially with South America
worked against democratic movements in South America
laissez-faire economics so that they could have economic opportunity. Also, believed in enlightenment ideas; religious tolerance, free press, etc.
people who favored the Catholic church, specifically the church's ownership of land and involvement in politics. Believed in traditional social order and did not believe in freedom of press or religious tolerance
General of the Mexican army who fought against the U.S. for control of Texas; originally a caudillo who gained political power; began as a reformer, but became later conservative
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the war between Mexico and America in 1848. Mexico lost half their land.
An era of ferm in Mexico brought about by Benito Juarez and other liberal reformers
general who took over power after Benite Juarez died; hero of war against the French, staged a military coup and gained power; In "Order and Progress" he strengthened the army, local police, and central government
when hacienda owners would give workers advantages on their wages and require them to stay on the hacienda until they had payed back what they owed, workers were rarely able to pay the hacienda owner back. most children died or were illiderate.
Monroe declared "The American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subects for future colonization by any European powers. The US lacked the military power to enforce the doctrine, but with the help of British navy there was no European interference. For more than a century the Monroe doctrine would be the key to US policy in the Americas.
International Police Power
U.S. claimed to be this power in order to protect their investments. ex: when the Dominican Republic failed to pay its debt, the U.S. sent in troops
The Panama Canal
Canal opened in 1914 that cut the distance between cities by thousand of miles. Known as "Yankee imperialism" the Latin American countries