Roman military and political leader of the Roman Republic
-One of the most influential men in world history. Played a critical role in the transformation to the Roman Empire. Became dictator in 44 BC
distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
-Struggled for power with Caesar around 50 BC was defeated and killed by Caesar
Coalition of three formed by Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar
-a move on Pompey's part to avoid limitations placed by the senate showed how private relationships had replaced communal values.
Commander of a client army
-His career revealed that traditional values no longer restrained commanders who wanted to advance themselves instead of peace and the good of the community.
During faction politics 133-121 BC
Fractions introduced by the Gracchus brothers.
-populares were supporters of the people & optimates were supporters of "the best"
Aristocrat who was on the Tribune
-They were both for providing lands and food to the poor. They were both murdered for their political involvement.
Aristocrat who was on the Tribune
-They were both for providing lands and food to the poor. they were both murdered for their political involvement.
around 450 BC
The earliest Roman law code
-Formalized legal customs. Prevented patrician officials from ruling unfairly. It was a response to the struggle of the orders and became a symbol of justice for all.
Struggle of the Orders
The struggle for power between the patricians and the plebeians.
-Finally ended when plebeians won the right to make their own laws. The Twelve Tables was produced in response.
The Rape of Lucretia
The son of Rome's king (Sextus Tarquinius) raped a Roman noblewoman
-The fallout led to the fall of the Roman monarchy and the establishment of the Roman Republic.
the early days of Rome 753 BC
Roman social and religious tradition
-System that allowed wealthy to provide benefits to lower status people for attention. The client would receive financial and political assistance. Clients were then groupies.
-Founded by Zeno of Citium. Taught that nature is an expression of the divine will and the brotherhood of man.
-Founded by Epicurus. Taught irrelevance of the gods, the meaning of life is pleasure, and limited involvement in politics.
Hellenistic Kingdom that emerged after Alexander the Great
-Was a blend of Egyptians and Greeks, however, non-Greeks were considered second class people. Cleopatra was of this line.
Hellenistic Kingdom that emerged after Alexander the Great.
-Society known for its assimilation. Also had a pervasiveness for Greek culture.
Battle of Chaeronea
Battle between Mecadon and Greek City states.
-Phillip secured Macedonian rule over Greece when his forces defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes. After the Battle of Mantinea.
Philip II of Macedon
Macedonian who united Macedon and Greece.
-used diplomacy. Father of Alexander the Great. Started using a Calvary. The League of Corinth, a federation of Greek city states.
Alexander the Great
Leader of Greece
-Expanded Greece. son of Phillip II. Known for his military exploits. Known for recklessness in battle. Fights with Persia to revenge the loss of his father. Names many cities after himself
-Known as "The Philosopher" Student of Plato. Came from Macedonia. He was a teacher to Alexander and founded his own school, the Peripatetic school.
Written by Plato in his lifetime. Famous Dialogue
-City directed by philosopher kings. Three classes. No slaves. No discrimination on women. Rejects private property.
-Student of Socrates. he was NOT a fan of Athenian democracy. Received more attention after his death. Founded the Academy. Wrote The Republic.