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Fungi

Large, multicellular eukaryotes that occupy terrestrial environments; absorb nutrition from other organisms

Mutualistic

Symbiotic relationships which benefit both partners

Mycorrhizal

Living in close association with plants

Saprophytes

Fungi that get nutrition by digesting dead plant material

Yeasts

One form of fungi; single-celled

Mycelia

Form of fungi; multicellular, filamentous structures; has large surgace area to absorb

Hyphae

Filaments within mycelium

Heterokaryotic

Each cell contains several haploid nuclei from different parents

Dikaryotic

Two haploid nuclei, one from each parent, are present

Septa

Cross-walls that break hyphae into cell-like compartments; have pores that enable materials, including organelles/nuclei, to flow between compartments

Coenocytic

Lacking septa completely

Chytrids

Fungi with swimming gametes; have alternation of generations

Zygosporangia

Spore-producing structure formed when hyphae from two different fungi yolk together

Basidia

Specialized "little pedestals" that form at ends of hyphae and produce spores

Basidiomycetes

Species with basidia

Asci

Specialized sacs that form at ends of hyphae and produce spores

Ascomycetes

Species that produce asci

Zygomycetes

Species that produce zygosporangia

Commensal

Symbiotic relationships which benefit one partner

Parasitic

Symbiotic relationships which benefit one partner at the expense of the other

Ectomycorrhizal Fungi (EMF)

Form sheaths around trees; cleave peptide bonds in decaying material, transmit nutrition to trees

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF)/Endomycorrhizal Fungi

Penetrates interior of treee, cell walls; transfer phosphorus to trees

Endophytic

Fungi that live in the aboveground parts of plants

Extracellular Digestion

Digestion that takes place outside of organism; occurs with fungi

Plasmogamy

When hyphae from two individuals come together and cytoplasm fuses

Karyogamy

Fusion of nuclei

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