Physical Science Final

131 terms by shysmurfette09 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

One product of photosynthesis is

Oxygen

Which one of the following is not a physical property of matter?

Flammability

A chemical reaction is at equilibrium when

The forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate

A balance chemical equation will have the same ______ on each side

Number of atoms of each element

What basic type of reaction is illustrated by the general equation AB --> A + B?

Decomposition

In general, fast reactions

Have low activation energies

The energy to start a chemical reaction is called the ______ energy

activation

When there is a net release of energy in a chemical reaction, it is called a(n) _________ reaction

exothermic

The rate of a chemical reaction would be decreased by

cooling the reactants

A solution with a pH of 8 is

weakly basic

Which of the following is a weak acid?

Acetic acid

Hydrogen gas would be a product of the reaction of

iron and hydrochloric acid

In order, from top to bottom, in the activity series come Li, K, Ba, Na, Al, Zn, Sn, and Pb. Therefore,

Tin is more active than lead

Reacting an acid with a base gives water and

a salt

By definition, the removal of oxygen from a compound is called

reduction

Organic chemistry studies chemical compounds that contain at least one atom of

carbon

In organic molecules, a carbon atom will normally form how many bonds?

4

In organic molecules, a bromine atom will normally form how many bonds?

1

Hydrocarbons containing all single bonds and a ring in their structural formulas are

cycloalkanes

Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are called structural, or constituitional,

isomers

Which organic compound is represented by a pentagon?

Cyclopentane

A hydrocarbon that contains one or more benzene rings must be classified as

aromatic

CFCs are

alkyl halides

Methyl salicylate is an ester commonly called

oil of wintergreen

Which alcohol is used in bereages?

Ethanol

starch is a polymer that consists a long chain of _________ units

Glucose

The general formula R-X is that of

an alkyl halide

Which of the following was the first synthetic compound to be made?

Bakelite

To which group of polymers does nylon belong?

Condensation

Socrates dies from ingesting the alkaloid named

coniine

The studey of astronomy involves

all of these

The geocentric model of the solar system is attriduted to

Aristotle

Kepler's second law of planetary motion is known as the law of

equal areas

The name given to the point of a planet's orbit that is closest to the Sun is

perihelion

Earth's axis is tilted ______ degrees from the normal to the ecliptic plane.

23.5

The planet Mercury

is the mallest of the terrestrial planets

The terrestrial planets have

all of these

According to today's classification system, how many major planets are there in the solar system?

8

Which of the terrestrial planets has rings?

None

The Jovian planets

all of these

The largest planet in the solar system is

Jupiter

The planet with the largest number of moons is

Jupiter

Other planetary systems are best detected by the Doppler shifts that change the pattern of the star's

spectrum

Which of the following is a technique used by astronomers in their search for other planetary systems?

Both (A) and (B)

Saturn's moon named ____ is the second largest moon in the solar system

Titan

_______ is the major moon of Neptune

Triton

Charon is a moon of ______

Pluto

The ______ surrounds the nucleus of a comet.

Head or coma

Halley's Comet returns about every _______ years

76

The particles of inter planetary are called _____.

micrometeoroids

If a person weighs 150 lb on Earth, what will the person weigh on the Moon?

25 lb.

The impact of meterites on the Moon has caused

both rays and craters

The oldest rocks on the Moon were formed about how many years ago?

4.4 billion

The Moon always presents the same face to Earth because

The Moon rotates on its axis at same rate at which it revolves around Earth

During a solar eclipse, the umbra moves accross Earth's surface generally from

West to East

Which of the following is Jupiter's largest moon?

Ganymede

What is the visible surface of the SUn called?

Photosphere

The number of _____ on the Sun varies over an 11-year cycle.

sunspots

The apparent path that the Sun traces annually along the celestial sphere is known as the ____.

ecliptic

The closest star to the Sun is named ________.

Proxima Centauri

Gas and dust distributed among the stars is known as the ____.

Interstellar medium

An incredible dense star so massive that light cannot ascape from it surface is called a ____.

Local Group

Patches of cooler material on the Sun's surface are called

sunspots

The Sun's high-speed charged nuclei and electrons form a fourth phase of matter known as a

plasma

Enormous filaments of excited gas arching over the Sun's surface and extending hundreds of thousand of kilometers outward are called

prominences

The closest star to the Sun is about how far away?

4.3 light-years

Stars of what magnitude are just barely visible to the unaided eye?

6

The ozone layer lies in the

stratosphere

About 80% of the mass of the atmosphere and most of the clouds and water vapor are located in the

troposphere

Weather occurs in the

troposphere

At 1800 degrees Fahrenheit, this part of atmosphere is heated almost directly by the Sun's rays

Thermosphere

The principal gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are

carbon dioxide and water vapor

Ions trapped in Earth's magnetic field fgive rise to

auroras

The fraction of incident light that a body reflects us known as its

albedo

Every square inch of our body, at sea level, sustains ____ of atmospheric pressure

14.7 lb

Which of the following units is used to express atmospheric pressure?

All of these

Doppler radar is replacing conventional radar in weather forecasting because

it can measure wind speeds

Air circulation around a cyclone in the Nothern Hemisphere as viewed from above is

counterclockwise

Clouds described as "artist's brushes" or "mare's tails" belong to what cloud family?

High

A type of cloud composed of ice crustals is the

Cirrostratus

Nimbus means

none of these

When air is cooled below its dew point without condensation, it is said to be

supersaturated

The process by which raindrops are formed by the collision of droplets is called

coalescence

Hurricanes derive their energy from

latent heat

Lightning that illuminates clounds with flickering flashes is called

heat lightning

A class of pollutants formed at high temperatures (nearly complete combustion) in the presence of air is

nitrogen oxides

In the amended Montreal Protacol, many nations agreed to phase out, the the year of 2000

CFCs

A form of precipitation that results from convection cycles in clouds is

hail

Hawaii's weather is chiefly affected by what type of air mass?

mT

The northern Atlantic Ocean is the source region for the ____ type of air mass

mP

A hurricane watchi is issued when

there is a threat of hurricane conditions within 24 to 36 h

The pollutant that affects the oxygen-carrying capability of the blood is

CO

Geologic evidence supports the theory of continental drift does not include

drag marks on the ocean floor

Alfred Wegener spectaculated that the present continents were once part of a single supercontinent that he named

Pangaea

Remanent magnetism is present in rocks that contain the mineral named

magetite

Earth's core is believed to be composed of

iron and nickel

The lithosphere "floats" on the asthenosphere, and the parts of lower density float higher. This state of buoyancy is called

isostasy

The San Andreas fault in California is thought to be a boundary of two plates

that are sliding horizontally past one another

The difference in time between the arrival of S waves and the arrival of P waves can be used to determine

the epicenter of an earthquake

An earthquake wave travels through

the mantle only

Earth's radius is about

6400 km

The structural region of Earth that has the greatest volume is the

mantle

The layer of rock immediately below the lithosphere is called the

asthenosphere

Large fractures in Earth's surface that are associated with the movement of lithospheric plates are called

faults

Any natually occurring, inorganic, crystalline substance with a fairly definite chemical composition is called a(n)

mineral

The element that is most abundant in Earth's crust is

oxygen

One main type of feldspar that contains potassium is

orthoclase

Which of the following statements is false?

The majority of surface rocks are igneous

Rocks solidified molten materialabove ground are classified as ____ igneous rocks

extrusive

A general name for an intrusive igneous rock formation is

pluton

Rocks formed consolidated sediment deposited in layers are known as ______ rocks

sedimentary

Silicates

All of the above

Rhombohedral cleavage is displayed by the mineral named

Calcite

The most abundant rocks in Earth's crust are the

silicates

The deflection of one lithospheric plate beneath another plate with which it is colliding is called

subduction

The process of transforming sediment into sedimentary rock is called

lithification

New rocks that have had their original form altered by heat and pressure, but without melting, are classified as

metamorphic

Which of the following is not a volcano or the result thereof?

A batholith

Four kinds of metamorphism are

contact, shear, hydrothermal, and regional

The process of leveling of the Earth by the wearing away of high places and the transportation to and deposition of sediments at lower levels is called

gradation

The most important acid involved in chemical weathering is

carbonic acid

A loop-like bend in a river channel is called

a meander

Small glaciers that form along mountains in hollow depressions that are protected from the Sun are called

cirque glaciers

The physical disintergration and chemical decomposition of rock at or near Earth's surface is called

weathering

Which of the following is not a component of a stream's load?

Mother load

By which of the following characteristics is a desert defined?

Lack of precipitation

Which of the following is not a form of downslope movement?

Overburden

Hard water is due to primarily to dissolved salts of which elements?

Calcium, iron, and magnesium

How many tidal bulges "move" around Earth daily?

2

A common depositional feature of shoreline topography is a

spit

A river's suspended load and bed load may accummulate at its mouth and form a

delta

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set