Anatomy: Muscles

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supraspinatus

origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus

coracobrachialis

flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus

triceps brachii

extends arm at elbow

biceps brachii

powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity

brachialis

flexes elbow

palmaris longus

flexes wrist

extensor carpi radialis

abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals

supinator

rotates forearm laterally

sartorius

abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella

gracilis

adducts femur/thigh

rectus femoris

part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee

vastus lateralis

part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee

gluteus maximus

heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking

biceps femoris

part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally

semitendinosus

part of hamstrings group

semimembranosus

part of hamstrings group

gastrocnemius

plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed

tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion and inversion of foot

soleus

plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus

longissimus capitus

helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side

hernia

protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall

abdominal aponeuroses

tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline

auricular

wiggle ears

orbicularis oculi

blink eye, smile

zygomaticus major

smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards

orbicularis oris

spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling

mentalis

protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad

buccinator

compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity

platysma

sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward

nasalis

changes size of nasal openings

digastric

opens jaw

sternocleidomastoid

rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone

rectus abdominus

major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"

external oblique

origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles

internal oblique

compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head

transverse abdominus

compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles

linea alba

midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet

serratus anterior

pulls scapula downward and forward

trapezius

origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension

rhomboid major

adducts scapula

pectoralis major

prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction

latissimus dorsi

adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially

deltoid

prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus

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