frequently develops with renal disease due to increased aldosterone secretion, glomerular congestion, and increased vascular volume.
criteria for declaration include no activity on EEG, absence of all reflexes, and no spontaneous respirations
inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves leads to ascending paralysis
precipitated by a viral infection in part, cerebral edema develops, liver damage is common
a condition present at birth, the spinal cord is exposed, can be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound or detection of AFP in maternal blood or amniotic fluid.
formerly called Grand Mal seizure, characterized by loss of consciousness then the tonic stage, which follow the aura. The clonic stage consists of alternating contractions and relaxation of skeletal muscles.
Pathophysiology includes demyelination of axons, affects the brain, spinal cord and cranial nerves, affects motor, sensory and autonomic fibers. Early signs include tremors, weakness in the legs and visual problems.
degeneration of the basal nuclei with a deficit of dopamine, early signs include tremors at rest in the hands and difficulty initiating voluntary movements, at later stages there is difficulty chewing and swallowing and with urinary retention and orthostatic hypotension develops
an autoimmune disorder, cholinergic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions are damaged, muscle weakness and fatigue occur in the face and neck
seizures are recurrent or continuous without full recovery between episodes, severe hypoxia and acidosis develop, changes in the characteristics of CSF develop
a skin and tissue disorder usually due to severe prolonged hypothyroidism, due to a devdicit of T3 and T4
causes the pituitary gland to produce excess growth hormone, resulting in abnormally tall stature.
an endocrine disorder in which excessive cortisol is excreted. It results in a heavy body and round face, atrophied skeletal muscle in the limbs and atrophy of the lymph nodes.
causes excess ADH secretion, severe hyponatremia (electrolyte imbalance) results, fluid retention increases.
Inappropriate ADH (antidiuretic hormone) syndrome
Blood flows in the kidney in the ___ ___to the ___capillaries to the ___ ___
afferent arteriole, glomerular, efferent arteriole
The urinary system is subject to many infections from various sources, including problems like
acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
A urinary infection which causes the urine to be dark because of increased glomerular permeability allowing gross hematuria
acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Urinary casts are also present with the disease because inflamed tubules mold red blood cells and protein into a typical mass and indicate
inflammation of the kidney tubules
key indicator when decompensated in renal failure is serum pH dropping below 7.35
Kidney disease can result in headaches, anorexia and lethargy because of
increased blood pressure, elevated serum urea and acidosis
caused by many factors such as prolonged circulatory shock, sudden exposure to nephrotoxins, and injuries such as crushing or burning
Acute tubule necrosis and renal failure
damage to the auditory association area in the left hemisphere causes the inability to
understand what is being heard
An early indicator of increasing intracranial pressure is
decreasing responsiveness, and the typical change in blood pressure that occurs is an increasing pulse pressure
resulting from increased intracranial pressure results in displacement of brain tissue downward towards the spinal cord
Typical signs of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm include
severe headache, nuchal rigidity and photophobia
can be an early indication of tumors as well because surrounding inflammation causes neurons to discharge uncontrollably
Focal or generalized seizures
swelling and purulent exudate forms in the pia, arachnoid and surface of the entire brain are manifestations of
After a spinal cord injury, secondary damage may occur due to
instability of vertebrae, catecholamine release in the area and decreased blood pressure
The point on the spinal cord that the damage is done determines
which parts of the body will be affected
spinal cord injury that would result in lower pack pain radiating down the leg
initial effect of a herniated disc at the L4 to L5 level
The extent of permanent spinal cord injury can be assessed ___ to ___ following injury if no complications arise
10 days, 2 weeks
Biochemical abnormalities involving neurotransmitters in the brain can be found in many diseases including
bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and Huntington's disease
occurs in diabetics because the amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit
is caused by increased catabolism of fats and proteins, and can cause a loss of consciousness because of acidosis and hypovolemia
Diabetic ketoacidosis differs from HHNK (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma) in
sufficient insulin is available to prevent ketonuria
causes problems mainly with the circulatory system and organs including the pancreas, however, complication like osteoporosis do not accompany the disease.
They have different times until the onset of ___, different times until ___ effect takes place, their duration of ___ is different as is the source of the insulin
action, peak, effect
The effects of long-term intake of ___ results in decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland
Reversible interference with brain function, usually resulting from a mild blow to the head
Occurs when the skill is not fractured by the injury but the brain tissue and blood vessels may be ruptured